persian gulf.sinus persicus.percy golf. pars sea

persian gulf in arabic newspaper .persian gulf<#hits#> again

National Geographic  report on history of persian gulf and did call it  again the

this is her report on  Persian Gulf...

 

 در خصوص ترجمه این کتاب به زبان انگلیسی و عربی از هموطنان تقاضای یاری داریم

تصویر روی جلد و پشت جلد نقشه یکی از ۱۰ نقشه معروفی است که بطور همزمان دریای عرب را با نام دریای پارسpersian sea و خلیج فارس را با نام خلیج فارس ثبت کرده اند البته ما دریای پارس را سالها است که به دریای عرب تغییر داده ایم حالا مانده است از آن اقیانوس پارس یک خلیج  در جنوب غربی ایران که ناسیونال فاشیستهای عرب به آنهم گیر داده اند .

Dear all PGTF
 
as you know arabic newspaper sharq al owsat is the  most important arabic newspaper publishing in more than  30 countries similtaniously . the writters are all very famous and most of them ex ministers or high rank officials ,there are 3 news and 4 articales on it during 1  month past  about persian gulf name and some comment on it and .
main point of this 4 article is this:

1-geoghraphical name are  not as important as some iranian are sensetive to it .
2-  geoghraphical name have no permenet  ID and are  due to be changed according to the reality as the bahre roum , mamlekat fars . blad ajam , soviet union ....that  have been changed and not exist any more.
3- those who had called the gulf persian gulf they had ignored west part of the gulf that have been resident of arabs befor Ariyan persian occupation??!!2500years ago??!!
4- historicaly the gulf had been named by arabs and others as persian gulf but this not means that it must remain as a holy unchangeable name for ever.
5- expansionist and pride ( kebria) policy of persian majus had been always with Iranian   wether Shah or iranian shia moullahs
6- Iranian can use the nam and we use our name
7- we will never oppose them of using persian gulf and they must not force us to obay that name
8- iranian nationalist are very racist and look to arabs as inferior and degrade insult arabs all the time.
9- there is persian side of the gulf and arabian side so it is persian/arabian gulf
10- iran must not use historical maps for political use
11- there are many geoghraphical name in the world with 2 or more diferent name and all respected country respect and treat these name as equail  like mansh and british chanel.both side use both name
12- why iranian becom so angry when ever they hear arabian gulf ? is not koran in arabic and prophet mohammad and imams all arabs?what is wrong or harmful to iranian who can not tolerate a name ?
14- kareston neibur and rodrico owen as pioneer europian had recognized  that the best name  fit to the region is arabian gulf because of the cost all populated by arabs .
15- khomeiny sugested islamic gulf but iranian racist nationalist full of persian pride  rejected this 

16- mollas are using this term to satisfy their safvid dreams. if you have any answear please go to their site an comment .
more:http://farsi-arabi.persianblog.ir/

www.parssea.persianblog.ir
www.asharqalawsat.com

persian gulf for ever has apeared in the most famouse arabic newspaper sharq al awsat

  

 

rashid
persian gulf
02/01/2005
i had read this comment and i am ashamed of many of this unlogic comments of ours brothers who call themself arabs i am sorry to say we had started to replace a historical name that has been used by all arabs as khaleej fars and bahre fars befor 1957 to arabian gulf if we want to change it it is ok but in arabic language. this is racist policy to force other culture and language to follow us
غضب إیران أو سوریة سواء فی التصریح أو فی السلوک, فضبط النفس لدیهما على درجة کبیرة لأنهما تقرآن ما بین السطور وما یدور تحت الطاولة.
The name of the Gulf was always the Persian Gulf and it was clear that the reason for changing the name to Arabic Gulf was due to Naser and his national movement. The logic of ownership of a water entity has never been in the iranian minds. So the logic and the examples given by the writer are invalid . Is he saying Mexico should take the whole ownership of the Gulf of Mexico etc. The arabs are the guilty party by giving themself the right to change one whole Gulf due to nationalism reasons. The current prime minister and his defense ministers of iraq are in temprory positions so iran does not have to reply
 
persian gulf for ever
uae
04/01/2005
since one year ago i am reading your article there is no logic and no reson to prove your claim and the same is with the comments always are the same it is comming from few people with diffrent name for example khanjar shie have been copied from previous article and paste it to this one
give us new thing and prove your claim with documents
as iranian are doing they will never claim any thing without enough document
i am an iranian but had allways recepected arabs as good people the problems is coming from our leaders

 

 A recent Kuwait Times news-story announced a $4.5m gift to Georgeِِ

Washington University's Institute for Middle East Studies, courtesy of the Government of Kuwait. On the face of it this piece of news is less than newsworthy; endowed Chairs and research institutes supported by Middle Eastern governments with dubious human rights records and illusive academic credentials have become the bloodline of Middle East and Islamic Studies at America's leading universities. Harvard and Georgetown are beneficiaries of tens of millions of dollars in grants from such renowned donors as the House of Saud, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, the al-Nahayan Charitable and Humanitarian Foundation, and the Bin Laden dynasty—all, incidentally, affiliated with states notorious for their poor Human Rights records. Likewise are Princeton, Columbia and Cornell recipients of donations from morally repugnant Middle Eastern regimes. The recent flurry of news about distinguished American academics lending their influence and expertise to burnish the less than savory reputation of Middle Eastern despots—a scheme Tufts University's Daniel W. Drezner termed "Scholars for Dollars"—is only the latest manifestation of this trend.[1] And so, George Washington's latest gift from Kuwait's al-Sabbaah dynasty is arguably another attempt by a "first among equals" at keeping up with the Joneses.

To be fair, universities solicit and receive grants from a variety of sources, most of them reputable and legitimate, philanthropic in nature, often with no strings attached; others with less than innocent intents, meant to curry favor and influence pre-determined outcomes. But even when university gifts stem from altruistic impulses—with the greater good and the advancement of knowledge as lodestars—they can be cause for alarm and can potentially taint an academic institution and prejudice its mission.

A case in point is the way in which the Kuwaiti Government—one of the world's worst human trafficking offenders[2]—spun its recent George Washington University donation for media and public relations gains, both in the US and at home. The Kuwait Times spoke with swagger of a longstanding "distinctive and solid" relationship between the Kuwaiti Government and George Washington University; it flaunted the fact that GW had awarded the Emir of Kuwait an Honorary Doctorate of Law in 2005, and claimed the university had established a Kuwait Chair to conduct "research and studies on the  Gulf region."[3]

Laughable and false as it may sound, the phrase "Arabian Gulf" is perhaps not much cause for concern; especially when GW's homepage defined the Chair in question as one devoted explicitly to the study of the "Gulf and Arabian Peninsula Affairs;" an artful choice of semantics that heeded the donor's dislikes—by omitting the adjective in "Persian Gulf"—and maintained for the university a modicum of academic integrity by feigning to indulge an "Arabian Gulf" fantasy. Still, this is a slippery slope in an academic field already fraught with emotions and ideological rivalries, and one long mired in political advocacy.

Speaking of the Persian Empire's importance during antiquity, the appellationSinus Persicus (today, the "Persian Gulf") reflects a very old usage, one going back to Strabo (64BC-AD24), perhaps even to earlier Classical Greek and later Roman geographers. Even tenth century Arab cartographers, and Arabic-language maps in more recent times, have referred to the Persian Gulf as "Khaliij Faaris" ("the Gulf of Persia"), seemingly unbothered by its non-Arab pedigree. In 1917, the US State Department's Board of Geographical Names designated the Persian Gulf as the sole official name of the region in question.[4] The United Nations followed suit in 1975 and again in 1984.[5] Yet, it was recently revealed that the United States Navy has been using the term "A.rabian Gulf" for decades, "out of deference for US allies in the region."[6]"Our [Arab] partners […] use [the Arabian Gulf], and so do we," said US Navy spokesman Lt. Myers Vasquez.[7]

Whether driven by ideological or pragmatic concerns, indulging such falsities and bowing to the neuroses of one's political partners can have dire consequences; especially when the partners in question are known practitioners of cultural suppression, oppression of minorities, historical revisionism, and rejection of minority narratives.

Seemingly bland terms such as "the Arabian Gulf" (or even the "Arab world," to name another of Arab nationalism's favored ideological talismans) are misleading at best. The "Arab Middle East"—an inaccurate construct, again "out of deference for US allies in the region"—is home to an estimated population of 300 million people.. Among them are 15 million Kurds, 15 million Copts, 25 million Berbers, 7 million Jews, and tens of millions of Armenians, Southern Sudanese, Maronites, Assyrians, and others, all of whom non-and outmoded Arab colonArab "users" of a slew of Arabic-defined languages. Yet American political expediency, moral abdication—or "deference for US allies in the region"—seem unworried by this kind of pandering to Arabist assumptions ialist models.

Albeit a Western coinage, colonialism and imperialism are not exclusively Western. And although they were wars waged against Muslims, the Crusades and Reconquista were delayed defensive endeavors, not colonial enterprises, and not a prelude to modern European Colonialism—as is often the portrayal in remorseful Western narratives.[8] Conquest and colonialism have, instead, been salient chapters in Muslim history (from the seventh century Arabians, to the fifteenth century Ottomans), and Muslim colonialists preceded their European charges down that path by close to a millennium.[9] The Iberian Peninsula, Central Eurasia, Western Asia, the Fertile Crescent, and Northern Africa were home to venerable civilizations prior to the Muslim-Arab conquests of the seventh century. What came to be called the "Arab world" during the twentieth century is anything but an exclusively Arab preserve. Pluralism and multiplicity of identities have been hallmarks of Middle Eastern history for millennia—even as modern Arabists seek to blur this reality. The Brill Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics writes that prior to the Arab conquests of the seventh century the region now misleadingly labeled the "Arab world"

had hosted many other cultures, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Ancient Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. […] The legacies of these pre-Islamic peoples and cultures did not all simply disappear with the advent of the Muslim Arabs. […] Peoples of the region resisted the forces of Arabicization, Islamicization, or both, [and] earlier cultures [have remained, alongside] groups convinced that their ancestors belonged to a people different from [the "Arabs".][10]

Yet, the Arab colonialist view of a cohesive uniform "Arab world," denuded of its pre-Arab heritage, seeps into America's official, academic, and popular Middle Eastern discourse. Never mind that a good third of Middle Easterners are not Arab; never mind that they still use languages and partake of collective memories distinct from those of Arabs; and never mind that their national names, place-names, and parameters of identity are explicitly non-Arab. The Arab die is cast, and "deference for US allies in the region" seems to justify shedding historical clarity and shirking academic decency.

Syro-Lebanese poet Adonis recently offered a devastating appraisal of this worldview. The image of the universe that Arabs have built around themselves and the political culture they spawned, he wrote, are completely closed to the outside world; Arabs and Arab nationalists are resentful, scornful, and loath to diversity.[11] Theirs is "a kind of culture, […] where the 'other' is Evil, Hell, Satan […] and where distinctness and plurality are rejected out of hand."[12]This is the monolithic Middle East that is being legitimized and intellectualized at America's leading universities today; a Middle East where the millenarian "Persian Gulf" is re-christened "Arabian," where a rich tapestry of cultures is deemed a uniform "Arab world," and where ancient pre-Arab peoples who so much as mutter]an idiom resembling "Arabic" are summarily anointed "Arabs."

by Franck Salameh
March 22, 2011 at 4:30 am

http://www.hudson-ny.org/1977/arabian-gulf


RADIO HOLLAND NETHERLAMD

nullTehran is outraged by a decision by National Geographic magazine to describe the sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula as the Arabian Gulf, rather than the Persian Gulf.

The cartographers insist they've used both names in their latest atlas, but Iran won't buy it. The Tehran government has even unearthed some ancient maps to prove its point.

In this interview with Radio Netherlands, historian Ali Ansari of the University of St Andrews in the UK explains what the fuss is all about:

"The Iranians have always been very sensitive about the naming of the Gulf, which they consider to be the Persian Gulf, with some justification of course because it's the legal name and the name used by the United Nations and the United States. Only, actually, the British government and some European governments tend to use this rather neutral term 'the Gulf'."

Audio_Real_bevel.jpg - click to listen to the interview, 3'24

"It's a response really to developments that occurred in the 1950s and 60s with the rise of Arab nationalism. [Egyptian president] Nasser in particular used to like to irritate the Shah of Iran by calling it 'the Arab Gulf'. And the Iranians sort of feel: 'There is an Arabian Sea, there's a Gulf of Oman, so why don't you just leave the Persian Gulf as it is,' which they argue - with I think considerable justification - is the historic name of that waterway."

RN: "But the Iranian foreign minister has even gone as far as saying that this was an attempt to misinterpret history and could even be politically motivated. Isn't that going a bit far?"

"I think it is in terms of what National Geographic is about. As far as I can see, National Geographic did call it the Persian Gulf, but then added in brackets the Arabian Gulf. Because what they do is they try and show where names are disputed."

"But it is more unusual for the Americans to do this than it is, for instance, in Europe. I think there was one publisher in the UK, for instance, that actually called it the Arabian Gulf and it caused something of a fuss, but not as much as this.'"

"So, I suspect this has a lot more to do with the fact that national and nationalist sentiment in Iran is very sensitive, very heightened at the moment. They see this as tension between Iran and the US. But I agree, in a way, that it's been exploited very much to maximise the sense of grievance, to show the perfidy of the United States."

"But that's somewhat exaggerating the motivation. I don't think National Geographic is necessarily an arm of the US government or anything. But certainly, I think, this is really more to do with galvanising the nationalist mood and exploiting the nationalist mood in Iran, which of course is very profound at the moment."

RN: "You say national sentiment is rising at the moment. Is it a lot stronger than what we've seen? Does it mean that Western powers have to really tiptoe around Iran more, so as not to inflame it on more minor issues as well?"

"Well, I think at this particular time, the government sees a lot of benefit. I mean, it's somewhat ironic, given that we're talking about a government that is essentially following an Islamic ideology. But, actually, what it understands is that, to keep the people on side, it has to follow a really strong nationalist programme and, therefore, these sort of things are very useful for it to sort of get the people together, get a certain amount of unity."

"This nationalist sentiment in Iran has been growing almost daily since the Islamic Revolution [of 1979] in actual fact. It's almost a reaction to the government, which has been overtly Islamic in its orientation, and talking of Islamic unity."

"The people, society, on the other hand, has reacted to that and tended to become much more Persian and Iranian in its outlook and tended not to play on this Islamic card. And it's one of these great paradoxes of course that, when they argued, even in the early days of the revolution that they should rename the Persian Gulf the Islamic Gulf or something like this, the Iranians were very much opposed to this. They thought this was an outrageous suggestion and however much they were the Islamic Republic they certainly were the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Iranian element was still very, very central."


President of FIFA

To:  President of FIFA, Mr. BLATTER

Dear respected President of FIFA, Mr. JOSEPH S. BLATTER,

It is very disappointed to see that the Arabian countries like, Qatar, U.A.E, Kuwait,… use the fake name of “Arabian Gulf”, instead of using its historical and actual name “Persian Gulf” in their Soccer or any other sports tournaments.

Iranian Football Federation (IFF) announced that Qatar is using and willing to use the fake name of “Arabian Gulf”, instead of “Persian Gulf”, for Asian Games 2006 in DOHA. IFF will boycott the Asian games 2006 and any other tournaments, if they continue to use the fake name of “Arabian Gulf”, IFF declared.

It is important to note that the “Persian Gulf” is the historic name of the waters that have been used since time immemorial. The ancient Greeks referred to the waters as Sinus Persicus, the Romans called it Mare Persicum, and the Arabs, for centuries, referred to it as Al-Khalij
Al-Farsia or Al-Bahr Al-Fars.

The reason the Persian Gulf has remained the Persian Gulf for so long is because it allows those referencing the body of water to remain neutral in a sensitive region by sticking with the term that has been used for thousands of years, and has historic roots rather than an
implication of ownership.

We will appreciate if you take your action against of using the fake name of “Arabian Gulf” which is using and will be using for Asian Games 2006 in Doha, Qatar and ban them from their duty of hostess and international tournaments till they correct it to its original name “Persian Gulf”.



Sincerely,

The Undersigned

View Current Signatures


Iranologists condemn deliberate distortion of Persian Gulf's name

Payvand's Iran News ...

12/24/04
Iranologists condemn deliberate distortion of Persian Gulf's name
Some 100 local and foreign Iranologists on Friday strongly condemned the deliberate attempt to change history by changing the name of the Persian Gulf, stressing the historical basis of the name, IRNA reported from Tehran.

 

Research should be given a high priority so that moves to change history by calling the Persian Gulf by other names is prevented, said the president of the Iranology Foundation, Dr. Hassan Habibi, in a conference of world Iranologists, the second of its kind held in the country.

The National Geographic Society, in the eighth edition of its atlas, used the name 'Arabian Gulf' to refer to the waters off the southern coast of Iran. This is "illegal and unacceptable," said Habibi.

The society is the publisher of the prestigious National Geographic magazine.

The society's use of dubious names for the Iranian islands of Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Mussa are also uncondonable, he said.

In the conference, Majlis Speaker Gholam-Ali Haddad Adel pointed to Iran's undeniable prestige in world history if one were to "study Iran's place in history free from bias and pre-judgment."

"Today, the geographical mass that is Iran occupies a superior location and is a crossroads between East and West. In Iran human's cultures and civilizations meet."

The four-day second Iranology conference concluded its work here Thursday.


photo: ISNA

Over 1,000 domestic and foreign experts attended the conference.

Articles and speeches in the fields of Persian literature, economy, archaeology, history, geography, politics, language, philosophy, management and arts were presented during the conference.

The conference was aimed at establishing more effective relations between experts and researchers of Iranology and to introduce them to latest studies and achievements in those fields.

Iran has vowed to follow up through legal channels the distortion of the Persian Gulf's name since it is rooted in history and recognized internationally to refer to the waters off Iran's southern coast.

In the aftermath of the distortion, the Islamic Guidance and Culture Ministry banned the magazine as well as its reporters from further operating in the country.

National Geographic magazine's website has reportedly been flooded with strong letters from the Iranian diaspora, particularly those in the United States, objecting to the change in name.

According to news reports, they have demanded that the organization correct its mistake


(UNESCO) Deputy Director General

UNESCOdeputy: My comments regarding Persian Gulf name

misinterpreted
Bam, Kerman prov, Dec 28, IRNA -- The United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Deputy Director General
Dr. Munir Bouchenaki said here Monday, "I have officially declared
before Iran`s representative at UNESCO that my words concerning the
name of Persian Gulf have been misinterpreted".
In a ceremony to unveil the golden plate of registration of Bam`s
old citadel in World Heritage List, Bouchenaki said, "UNESCO is not an
entitled source to nominate the world geographical sites.
Deputy director general of UNESCO added, the organization operates
upon UN resolutions and declarations.
The official said, "According to the existing documents in UN the
water way between Arabian Peninsula and Iran is called the Persian
Gulf".
So, the UNESCO will naturally use only the name which has been
registered in the UN official documents, he concluded.
1391/2329/1432


Article abut Persian gulf

Article abut Persian gulf

Pictures


Persian Gulf, Kish Island, Daruish Hotel, Summer 2003


Interesting Articles

Please browse from the articles below:

Mahnameh-e-Kanooniran, September 2003
originally from http://www.kanooniran.com/mahnameh/Mahnameh-0903.pdf (3MB)

A discussion about Persian Gulf by Mahan Abedin, Weekly Kayhan London, No. 970, Thursday August 28 to Wednesday September 3, 2003

A brief history of the name "Persian Gulf" by Atef Maziyar, June 2000

Notes on the Persian Gulf

The name of the Persian Gulf

Conspiracy to change a heritage name "The Persian Gulf"  by M.Ajam 2/12/2000

Persian Gulf Eternally Iranian

Dr. Davood N. Rahni reports from New York


زنده باد ملت ايران پاينده ايران پيروزی مبارک

اولين عقب‌نشيني «نشنال جئوگرافيك» در برابر خشم ايرانيان

 

 

 

congratulation National Geographi finaly respected iranian public opinion and deleted arabian as an alternative name
i wish arabs extremist and chuvinist learn this logic way and respect the reality and the truth of of past and present.
eternal iran zendeh bad mellat iran see:
www.parssea.persianblog.ir


با واكنش شديد وبلاگ نويسان و حمايت  ايرانيان  غيرتمند در سراسر جهان يک بار ديگر افکار عمومی پيروزی بزرگی را نصيب ملت ايران نمود  مؤسسه «National Geographic» در جهت احترام به افکار عمومی استفاده از واژه جعلي «خليج عربي»،  مجبور به حذف اين نام از نقشه خود شد
تصوير نقشه جعلي و
اصلاح‌شده اين مؤسسه را در زير مشاهده مي‌كنيد.

       

مبارزه ما با اطلسهای چاپ انگليس استعمار گر ادامه خواهد يافت


Persian Gulf/bahrain tribune

Time to rise above trivialities

A top Iranian sports official has warned that Tehran would boycott the 2006 Asian Games if host Qatar kept using the term “Arabian Gulf” instead of the Persian Gulf in documents advertising the games. Iran has also celebrated a National Geographic map revision by naming a major highway after the Persian Gulf. “If Qatar keeps using the distorted name of ‘Arabian Gulf’ in documents advertising the games, we will boycott the games,” said Issa Eshaqi, spokesman of the Physical Training Organisation. Even Iran’s Foreign Minister, Kamal Kharrazi, put his weight behind Iran’s campaign forcing the National Geographic to change ‘Arabian Gulf’ to ‘Persian Gulf’ on its map, saying, “Retreat by National Geographic in correcting the distorted name it had used for the Persian Gulf is a victory for every Iranian.” At a time when the Gulf and the Middle East is witnessing campaigns against Arabs and Muslims, when the Islamic world is on the verge of permanently losing Al Aqsa Mosque in the occupied Arab East Jerusalem because of the new realities which are being created by the Jewish state and when Iraq is being destroyed by occupation and insurgency, logic dictates that the Muslim world should remove all obstacles in order to achieve a unified stand vis-a-vis all the challenges facing them in the region. This is not the time to create new divisions within the Muslim world ranks over trivial issues. What’s in a name after all. As William Shakespeare said, “that which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” It matters little at this time whether the Iranians call it “Persian Gulf” or Arabs call it “Arabian Gulf” or even the National Geographic decides to change the name on its map from “Arabian” to “Persian”. It is a well known fact that the countries of the Gulf only rule their territorial waters and have no jurisdiction on the whole Gulf. What matters at this time is the fact that the American Navy is the only power that rules over the whole of the Gulf waters. Neither Iran nor the Arab states have much say about this fact. The power of the countries in the Gulf is limited to giving it a name according to their emotionally-driven wishes. That power is not limited to Iran only or the National Geographic for that matter. Iran may have ruled over all of the Gulf waters many centuries ago but now it only controls less than half of the Gulf shoreline. Iran definitely has the right to call the Gulf ‘Persian’ and the rest of the countries have the right to call it ‘Arabian’. This does not change the fact that none of the Gulf countries control it for we all know which country actually does. Wisdom dictates that instead of fighting over the name we should come together and give it a name like the ‘Gulf of Peace and Harmony’ for a name like that might even give all of us the courage to rise above trivialities and guide us towards choosing the right way to live together.
Last update on: 7-1-2005


 
Persian Gulf
 
 
arm of the Arabian Sea, 90,000 sq mi (233,100 sq km), between the Arabian peninsula and Iran, extending c.600 mi (970 km) from the Shatt al Arab delta to the Strait of Hormuz, which links it with the Gulf of Oman.    1
 
Physical Geography
The Persian Gulf, called the Arabian Gulf by the Arabs, is mostly shallow and has many islands, of which Bahrain is the largest. The gulf is bordered by Oman and the United Arab Emirates to the south, to the west by Qatar and Saudi Arabia, to the north by Kuwait and Iraq, and along the entire east coast by Iran. It was generally thought that the gulf had previously extended farther north and that sediment dropped by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Karkheh rivers filled the northern part of the gulf to create a great delta. But geologic investigations now indicate that the coastline has not moved and that the marshlands of the delta represent a sinking of the earth’s crust as the Arabian land block pushes under Iran. The gulf waters have very slow currents and limited tidal range.    2
 
History
The Persian Gulf was an important transportation route in antiquity but declined with the fall of Mesopotamia. In succeeding centuries control of the region was contested by Arabs, Persians, Turks, and Western Europeans. In 1853, Britain and the Arab sheikhdoms of the Persian Gulf signed the Perpetual Maritime Truce, formalizing the temporary truces of 1820 and 1835. The sheikhs agreed to stop harassing British shipping in the Arabian Sea and to recognize Britain as the dominant power in the gulf. These sheikhdoms thus became known as the Trucial States. An international agreement among the major powers in 1907 placed the gulf in the British sphere of influence.    3
Although oil was discovered in the gulf in 1908, it was not until the 1930s, when major finds were made, that keen international interest in the region revived. Since World War II the gulf oil fields, among the most productive in the world, have been extensively developed, and modern port facilities have been constructed. Nearly 50% of the world’s total oil reserves are estimated to be found in the Persian Gulf. It is also a large fishing source and was once the chief center of the pearling industry. In the late 1960s, following British military withdrawal from the area, the United States and the USSR sought to fill the vacuum. In 1971 the first U.S. military installation in the gulf was established at Bahrain.    4
The long-standing Arab–Persian conflict in the gulf, combined with the desire of neighboring states for control of large oil reserves, has led to international boundary disputes. Iraq and Iran argued over navigation rights on the Shatt al Arab, through which Iran’s main ports and most productive oil fields are reached. Iran and the sheikhdom of Ras al-Khaima contested ownership of the oil-rich islands of Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunb at the entrance to the gulf. Iranian forces occupied these islands in Dec., 1971, infuriating Iraq. The much-contested rights over the Shatt al Arab led Iran and Iraq into an 8-year war in the 1980s (see Iran-Iraq War). In 1984 American and other foreign oil tankers in the gulf were attacked by both Iran and Iraq. The security of Persian Gulf countries was threatened throughout this war.    5
When Iraq invaded Kuwait in Aug., 1990, the Persian Gulf was once again a background for conflict. International coalition ground forces were stationed in Saudi Arabia and neighboring gulf countries in the Persian Gulf War (1991). Before Iraq was expelled from Kuwait in Feb., 1991, Iraqi soldiers set fire to over 500 Kuwaiti oil wells and dumped millions of barrels of oil into the Persian Gulf, causing an environmental crisis and threatening desalination plants throughout the area. The area again was the scene of warfare in 2003 when U.S. and British forces invaded Iraq. The Persian Gulf’s vast oil reserves make the area a continuing source of international tension.

The Parthian of persia

The Parthian Empire


Parthia Map Coverage The Parthian Empire is a fascinating period of Persian history closely connected to Greece and Rome. Ruling from 247 B.C. to A.D. 228 in ancient Persia (Iran), the Parthians defeated Alexander the Great's successors, the Seleucids, conquered most of the Middle East and southwest Asia, controlled the Silk Road and built Parthia into an Eastern superpower. The Parthian empire revived the greatness of the Achaemenid empire and counterbalanced Rome's hegemony in the West. Parthia at one time occupied areas now in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaidzhan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel.

Behistan 

 Kish Island

 

The Old Persian Language

Linguistically, Old Persian is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian or Aryan group which is one of the main divisions of the Indo-European family of languages.


The Old Persian Script
The Script used in the Old Persian inscriptions is of the Cuneiform type: that is, the characters are made of strokes which can be impressed upon soft materials by a stylus with an angled end. The Old Persian inscriptions, were imitations made on hard materials by engraving tools of the strokes impressed on soft materials.

The very first published inscription was given by Chardin in 1711 of the Darius the Great inscription at Persepolis.

http://www.iranica.com/articlenavigation/alphabetical/bodya.html

3: AÚB i. , Concept of water in ancient Iran , Boyce, M.

4: AÚB ii. , Water in Muslim Iranian culture , Poonawala, I.

5: AÚB iii. , Hydrology and water resources of Iranian plateau , Beaumont, P.

6: AÚB-ANBAÚR , ,

7: AÚB-ANBAÚR i. , Water reservoir: history , Holod, R.

8: AÚB-ANBAÚR ii. , Water reservoir: construction , Sotuda, M.

9: AÚB-E DEZ , River in Kuzestan , Gaube, H.

10: AÚB-E GARM , Hot springs of Persia , Ehlers, E


historical maps of persian gulf

Iran Shows Persian Gulf Historical Maps


 

Iran unveiled a collection of historical maps on Sunday in a bid to prove the legitimacy of calling its neighboring sea the Persian Gulf instead of the "Arabian Gulf" as it also is listed in the new world atlas by National Geographic.
Last month, Iran banned the sale of National Geographic Society publications to protest the "Arabian Gulf" inclusion. The issue also has caused widespread protests by intellectuals, historians, students across Iran, formerly Persia.
Identification of the Gulf region and various parts within it has long been a sensitive topic for Iran, which believes that there has been a pan-Arabist campaign since the 1950s — led by late Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and followed by deposed Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein— to call the sea the "Arabian Gulf."
Iran considers use of that term an affront to its sovereignty.
Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi, who inaugurated the exhibition of ancient and historical maps Sunday, said the name of the Persian Gulf cannot be changed.
"Presenting historical evidences here is merely for the sake of reiteration," Kharrazi said.
The exhibition included a 1990 atlas released by National Geographic that identifies the sea as the Persian Gulf and the islands of Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs as owned by Iran.
In its eighth edition atlas released in October, National Geographic used the term "Arabian Gulf" alongside "Persian Gulf" and referred to the islands as "occupied" by Iran and "claimed" by the United Arab Emirates.
In a Dec. 8 statement on its Web site, National Geographic said it was aware of the sensitivities of the issue and had held "constructive and informative" discussions with individuals and organizations representing Iranian and Persian interests.
"These meetings have also given us an opportunity to affirm our long-standing position that the Persian Gulf is the historic and most commonly used name for the body of water southwest of Iran," the statement said.
It said the company was reviewing ways to further clarify notations on map products and services.
Earlier, it had defended the atlas, saying it recognized the Persian Gulf as the primary name but used the "Arabian Gulf" alongside it to make is easier for users searching for that designation.
The Tehran exhibition displayed about 100 historical maps, including a 1952 Arabic map printed in Saudi Arabia that identifies the sea as "Persian Gulf."
"As all of us are aware, the United Nations in two documents issued respectively in 1971 and 1984 has declared the Persian Gulf as the official name of the sea," Kharrazi said. Also attending the exhibition were foreign diplomats based in Tehran. 
The exhibition included a 1990 atlas released by National Geographic that identifies the sea as the Persian Gulf and the islands of Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs as owned by Iran.

In its eighth edition atlas released in October, National Geographic used the term "Arabian Gulf" alongside "Persian Gulf" and referred to the islands as "occupied" by Iran and "claimed" by the United Arab Emirates.

In a Dec. 8 statement on its Web site, National Geographic said it was aware of the sensitivities of the issue and had held "constructive and informative" discussions with individuals and organizations representing Iranian and Persian interests.

"These meetings have also given us an opportunity to affirm our long-standing position that the Persian Gulf is the historic and most commonly used name for the body of water southwest of Iran," the statement said.

It said the company was reviewing ways to further clarify notations on map products and services.

Earlier, it had defended the atlas, saying it recognized the Persian Gulf as the primary name but used the "Arabian Gulf" alongside it to make is easier for users searching for that designation.

The Tehran exhibition displayed about 100 historical maps, including a 1952 Arabic map printed in Saudi Arabia that identifies the sea as "Persian Gulf."

"As all of us are aware, the United Nations in two documents issued respectively in 1971 and 1984 has declared the Persian Gulf as the official name of the sea," Kharrazi said. Also attending the exhibition were foreign diplomats based in Tehran.

Iranian researchers and historians have launched a campaign to defend the Persian Gulf name, and youths are also collecting signatures through the Internet to support the campaign.

"Intellectuals, researchers and everybody who respects preserving historical names can't remain silent to such a clear distortion of facts. Iranian researchers are working through articles and scientific evidence to defend the name of the Persian Gulf," political analyst Davoud Hermidas Bavand said.

 

http://www.payvand.com/news/05/jan/1022.html

Persian Gulf: A Name for All Seasons
 
Mohammad Gharaguzlu, Shargh Newspaper, 12/14/2004

Translated by Roya Monajem for Tavoos Online


Persian Gulf and Arab Gulf, two distinct names in Ptolemy's Map
The famous Greek mathematician and astronomer of 2nd Century BC,
Claudius Ptolemy was a great geographer as well. His world map is in
the shape of a vast hemisphere showing at least 8000 places. In this
map, the Persian Gulf recorded as Sinus persicus is clearly shown.
Parallel to it, toward south, we find the name Sinus Arabicus or Arab
Gulf. From this important map, which together with its marking method -
attracted the attention of Islamic scholars a more important point can
be derived: Persian and Arab Gulfs were two distinct seas whose names
and limits were known even before Christ.

Persian Gulf in a few Islamic Geographical Maps

Estakhari's Masaalek va Mamaalek (Credos and Countries):This book
contains maps accompanied with useful commentaries and descriptions. In
Estakhri's world maps, the earth is shown as a vast sphere surrounded
by water. The Caspian Sea is shown surrounded by land, while the
Persian Gulf is connected to a peripheral ocean. The interesting point
here is like all ancient geographers, Estakhri thought Kaaba was the
navel of the earth.



The Map of Persian (Fars) Sea in Ibn Hughal's Sourat-ol-Arz (The face
of the earth): Here is no place to consider whether the information
provided by Ibn Hughal in Sourat-ol-Arz, is just the second or third
hand information and duplication of the works of Estakhri and other
scholars or not. What is important is that this Arab traveler has
clearly talked about Persian Gulf and has dedicated a chapter of the
above book to the Persian Sea in which contrary to the present
fabrications explains the reason for calling this Gulf as Persian Gulf.
Ibn Hughal writes: As I have repeatedly said, the Persian Sea is a gulf
of the peripheral sea near China and the city of Waaq continued to
Sand, Kerman and Fars and is known as Persian (Fars) among people of
all countries. The reason is that Persia is more prosperous than all
these countries and its kings enjoyed greater power in the past. At
present they rule over the far and near ! shores of this sea. Ships of
all other cities that travel in the Persian Sea and leave the
boundaries of their cities, but return to them safe and sound belong to
Persia.



In the map of the Arabic text of Sourat-ol-Arz, as in those of all
ancient Islamic texts, north is shown below and south above. In Ibn
Hughal's map, Persian Sea is distinctly shown along Fars and Kerman and
is connected to the peripheral sea. In this map, Khuzestan and the
three islands, Khark, Laft and Oral situated in the Persian Sea are
also clearly marked. Sourat-ol-Arz was written in 978 AD and contains
many interesting points in the part dealing with the Persian Sea. For
example, in locating the position of the Gholzam Sea, the author
writes: A part of the Persian Sea embracing Gholzam up to the shores of
Yemen is called the Gholzam Sea. Its length is 30 manzel and its width
in its widest part is 3 nights and it then gradually becomes narrower
to the extent that the other side of sea is seen from certain places.
It finally reaches Gholzam. In his description about the Persian Sea,
Ibn Hughal mentions Ade! n Sea, Oman's Alzanj Sea and Black Sea and
consider them all as parts of the Persian Sea.



"There is a pearl mine near Aden and whatever is extracted from this
mine is taken to Aden. If you pass Oman and leave the Islamic domains,
you reach Serendip (present Ceylon), waters of that area too is also
called Persian Sea. It is quite a wide area with the city of Zanj
situated on its shore. On the shores of this sea, there are many lands
and terrifying passage ways very difficult to cross, with the most
grueling one situated in Jenaabeh (Ganaveh) and Basra. It is called Hur
Jenaabeh and is extremely fearful and no ship can cross this place safe
when the sea is rough. There is a place in it called Khashaab, which is
6 miles from Abadan toward the Tigris River. Sometimes the sea is so
shallow that big ships fear to pass it."



In another place, while describing the geographical position of Persia,
Ibn Hughal writes: "Among its seas, the biggest is the Persian Sea, as
the Basra Sea is called the Persian Sea up to its furthest shore in
India."



The map of the Persian Sea in Moajem-al-baldaan:  Shahab-al-din Abi
Abdollah Yaqut ibn Abdollah al-Hamumi al-Rumi al-Baghdadi is the author
of one of the most famous and comprehensive encyclopedias of geography.
In the first part of Al-Baldaan, Yaquti provides a simple map of the
earth and its important seas. In this map too, a peripheral sea
surrounds the earth and Persian and Gholzam Seas are shown as two
parallel branches of the huge Indian Sea, while Khaarazm and Jorjan
Seas are shown like lakes. In this simple map, the Nile River is also
clearly marked.



The map of the Persian Gulf in Aasaar-ol-balaad va Akhbaar-ol-ballad -
by Zakaria ibn Mohmmad ibn Mahmud Al-Qazvini, one of the prominent
historians and geographers of 13th century and the author of two
important books, Ajaaeb-ol-makhlughat va Gharaeb-ol-Mojudaat (Strange
Creature) and Aasaar-ol-balaad va Akhbaar-ol-ballad. In Qazvini's map
presented in Aasaar-ol-balaad, the seven regions of the world are shown
and although it contains new points, but in his conception of the
world, this great geographer too was under the influence of his
predecessors. A glance at the maps of the world from ancient times to
Zakaria Qazvini does not show any major deep change. In Qazvini's map,
north is still shown below and south on top, west is on the right side
and east on the left. Persian lands including Makran, Kerman and Shiraz
are placed among the lands of the third region and the Persian Gulf is
clear! ly marked under the same name. On the right side of the Persian
Gulf (toward west) the Barbari Gulf is seen on north of Ethiopia. The
same is seen in the book Al-Aalam (the world). Zakaria Qazvini had
crossed the Persian Gulf and visited many of its islands, including
Kish and described his trips in the above work.



Except these five old maps, there are many maps in reliable
geographical texts that clearly speak of the sea on the south of Persia
as the Persian Gulf or Sea.



Arabic Maps



1- The Map of the encyclopedia of Al-mosueh al-arabieh al-masireh - The
Map of Encyclopedia of Almousouah Al-Arabieh Al-masireh is a
comprehensive work of about 2000 pages published by the Franklin
Publishing House in Cairo. It is prepared by 120 specialists teaching
in various Egyptian Universities under the supervision of Mohammad
Shafiq Gharbal. The title of the map is "The Arab State at the peak of
its vastness." The interesting point here is that the name of Persian
Gulf is written in Persian and it is repeated twice in the text on
Persia (Iran). It should be reminded here that the title Arab State is
in fact a reference to Islamic conquest that led to occupation of vast
areas from east of Persian to Africa and parts of Europe and Spain.
Therefore, it was more appropriate to use the term Islamic State.



2- Two very important Iraqi documents: these documents were published
during Iran-Iraq war in an Iraqi magazine called Afagh. Both maps show
the region now called Middle East from 7th to 11th century. The most
interesting point here is that the Iraqi author of the article in which
the above maps were presented to document his discussion, uses the old
name of Persian Sea. It is interesting because Iraqi people have always
been the most serious advocates of calling this sea as Arabian Sea.



3- An official Iraqi document: This important official document is a
map called "The Map of Old Places in Iraq," published in 1929 in
English together with some guidelines for visitors. The title of the
above document and the map were copied from the original. In this map
the name Persian Gulf is repeated three times. Remembering the official
aspect of this map, showing the region from some millennia before
Christ, little doubt remains about the authenticity of the name in
question. Another important aspect of this document is the border line
between Persia and Iraq which is clearly marked on the west side of the
Arvand Rud River, thus showing the Persian sovereignty over the whole
length of  this river.