persian gulf.sinus persicus.percy golf. pars sea

persian gulf and <#hits#> persian sea in ancient books and maps <#hits#>

 Strabo had used name of persian gulf in his maps and books he was  (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Nowadays, Strabo is mostly famous for his Geographia, a 17-book work containing history and descriptions of people and places all over the world as known to him.

Strabo was born in a wealthy family from Amaseia (current-day Amasya, Turkey) in Pontus, which became part of the Roman empire just around the time of his birth. He studied under various geographers and philosophers, first in his own area, later in Rome. He was philosophically a stoicist, politically a proponent of Roman imperialism. Later he made extensive travels to among others Egypt , Ethiopia  and persian sea. It is not known when he wrote his Geographia though remarks in it place the finished version in the reign of Emperor Tiberius; some place its first drafts around 7 AD, others around 18 AD. The death of Juba, king of Maurousia is mentioned, an event which took place in 23 AD.

Strabo's Historia is lost: Strabo quotes it himself, and other classical authors mention that it existed. All that we have of it is a fragment of papyrus now at the University of Milan (renumbered P[apyrus] 46).

Several different dates have been proposed for Strabo's death, most of them placing it shortly after 23.

The Geographia is an extensive work in Greek, spanning 17 volumes, and can be regarded as an encyclopedia of the geographical knowledge of his time. He also gives a history of geography, thus giving us information about various older geographers whose works have not survived. Some thirty manuscripts of Geographia or parts of it have survived, almost all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were probably copied out ca AD 100 - 300. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002, appearing at a rate of about a volume a year.

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Claudius Ptolemaeus had used persian gulf in his works and maps (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαίος; c. 85 – c. 165), known in English as Ptolemy, was a Greek geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who probably lived and worked in Alexandria in Egypt.

Ptolemy was the author of two important scientific treatises. One is the astronomical treatise that is now known as the Almagest (in Greek Η μεγάλη Σύνταξις, "The Great Treatise"). It was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name) and only made available in Latin translation (by Gerard of Cremona) in the 12th Century.

In this work, one of the most influential books of Antiquity, Ptolemy compiled the astronomical knowledge of the ancient Greek and Babylonian world; he relied mainly on the work of Hipparchus of three centuries earlier. Ptolemy formulated a geocentric model (see: Ptolemaic system) of the solar system which remained the generally accepted model in the Western and Arab worlds until it was superseded by the heliocentric solar system of Copernicus. Likewise his computational methods (supplemented in the 12th Century with the Arabic computational 'Tables of Toledo') were of sufficient accuracy to satisfy the needs of astronomers, astrologers and navigators, until the time of the great explorations. They were also adopted in the Arab world and in India. The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is probably an updated version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of 48 constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky.

Ptolemy's other main work is his Geography. This too is a compilation, of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman empire at his time. He relied mainly on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian empire, but most of his sources beyond the perimeter of the Empire were unreliable.

The first part of the Geography is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. Like with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. He assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred to express it in the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc (the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as you go from the equator to the polar circle). He put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the Canary Islands.

Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. In the second part of the Geography he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Canary islands in the Atlantic Ocean to China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from the Arctic to the East-indies and deep into Africa; Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe.

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography however, date only from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes.


Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), but Ptolemy invented improved projections. It is known that a world map based on the Geography was on display in Autun (France) in late Roman times. In the 15th century Ptolemy's Geographia began to be printed with engraved maps; an edition printed at Ulm in 1482 was the first one printed north of the Alps. The maps look distorted as compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the Earth too small: while Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a degree on the globe, in the Geographia Ptolemy uses 500 stadia. It is not certain if these geographers used the same stadion, but if we assume that they both stuck to the traditional Attic stadion of about 185 meters, then the older estimate is 1/6 too large, and Ptolemy's value is 1/6 too small. Because Ptolemy derived most of his topographic coordinates by converting measured distances to angles, his maps get distorted. So his values for the latitude were in error by up to 2 degrees. For longitude this was even worse, because there was no reliable method to determine geographic longitude; Ptolemy was well aware of this. It remained a problem in geography until the invention of chronometers at the end of the 18th century AD. It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony of the persistent popularity of this influential work.

In his Optics, a work which survives only in a poor Arabic translation, he writes about properties of light, including reflection, refraction and colour. His other works include Planetary Hypothesis, Planisphaerium and Analemma.

 

Ptolemy's Geography was what we would now call an atlas, the core of which were of course the maps, referred to in the text and table of contents below as "Fifth Map of Europe", "Third Map of Asia", etc. The manual copying of maps is fiendish work, however, and considerably less reliable than that of text — Ptolemy was well aware of this (Book I, Chapter 18) — and his maps have consequently disappeared: nothing remains but the index. Recognizing that the maps would be a sticking point, Ptolemy also suggested that people replot his data, and a good section of Book I of the Geography offers advice on how to draw the maps.

Various people at various times have redrawn the maps from the coördinates given in the work: the map appended to Prof. Stevenson's edition, for example, is a medieval version or copy of just such a replot, but both Planudes and Karl Müller have done it as well. Thus, in undertaking this Web edition at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, I found myself very moved to be, and in good company at that, following Claudius Ptolemy's instructions using instruments he would never have dreamt of: every once in a while, this would hit me for a few seconds and make the unspeakably tedious cartographic reproduction much easier.

Technical details about my maps will follow once I assemble my thoughts a bit better, but I can make two useful remarks right away:

 

- periplus of erythera

 

this traveller of first century described his voyage to persian sea and persian gulf ......

32. Immediately beyond Syagrus the bay of Omana cuts deep into the coast-line, the width of it being six hundred stadia; and beyond this there are mountains, high and rocky and steep, inhabited by cave-dwellers for five hundred stadia more; and beyond this is a port established for receiving the Sachalitic frankincense; the harbor is called Moscha, and ships from Cana call there regularly; and ships returning from Damirica and Barygaza, if the season is late, winter there, and trade with the King's officers, exchanging their cloth and wheat and sesame oil for frankincense, which lies in heaps all over the Sachalitic country, open and unguarded, as if the place were under the protection of the gods; for neither openly nor by stealth can it be loaded on board ship without the King's permission; if a single grain were loaded without this, the ship could not clear from the harbor.

33. Beyond the harbor of Moscha for about fifteen hundred stadia as far as Asich, a mountain range runs along the shore; at the end of which, in a row, lie seven islands, called Zenobian. Beyond these there is a barbarous region which is no longer of the same Kingdom, but now belongs to Persia. Sailing along this coast well out at sea for two thousand stadia from the Zenobian Islands, there meets you an island called Sarapis, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the mainland. It is about two hundred stadia wide and six hundred long, inhabited by three settlements of Fish-Eaters, a villainous lot, who use the Arabian language and wear girdles of palm-leaves. The island produces considerable tortoise-shell of fine quality, and small sailboats and cargo-ships are sent there regularly from Cana.

34. Sailing along the coast, which trends northward toward the entrance of the Persian Sea, there are many islands known as the Calxi, after about two thousand stadia, extending along the shore. The inhabitants are a treacherous lot, very little civilized.

35. At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon, and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. At the upper end of the persian Gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charax Spasini and the River Euphrates.

36. Sailing through the mouth of the Gulf, after a six-days' course there is another market-town of Persia called Omana. To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs of blackwood and ebony. To Ommana frankincense is also brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia boats sewed together after the fashion of the place; these are known as madarata. From each of these market-towns, there are exported to Barygaza and also to Arabia, many pearls, but inferior to those of lndia; purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a great quantity of dates, gold and slaves.

37. Beyond the Ommanitic region there is a country also of the Parsids, of another Kingdom, and the bay of Gedrosia, from the middle of which a cape juts out into the bay. Here there is a river affording an entrance for ships, with a little market-town at the mouth, called Oraea; and back from the place an inland city, distant a seven days' journey from the sea, in which also is the King's court; it is called ----- (probably Rhambacia). This country yields much, wheat, wine, rice and dates; but along the coast there is nothing but bdellium

yo can see ful text here http://www.und.ac.za/und/classics/india/periplus.htm>

recently in translation to arabic they had translated original word of persian gulf an persian see to arabian gulf and arabian see click here to see!!!?

Red sea was called  the "Arabian Gulf" in most European sources up to the 20th century. This was derived from older Greek sources. Herodotus, Strabo an and Ptolemy all called the waterway "Arabicus Sinus", while reserving the term "Sea of Erythrias" (Red Sea) for the waters around the southern Arabian Peninsula, now known as Indian Ocean.

The name of the sea does not indicate a real red colour, as the seawater is actually blue when viewed afar, and transparent when held in hand. It may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum near the water surface. Some suggest that it refers to the mineral-rich red mountains nearby, which are indeed called "הרי אדום" ("Mounts of the Edomites" or "the Rubi mountains")

Percy Sykes  in his book "persia " have  the best explnation abut persian gulf name 

From the PublisherPersia in the Great Game
by Antony Wynn
Usually ships in 1 to 3 weeks

Percy Sykes was sent to Persia by British Army Intelligence in the 1890s, first as an explorer and spy, then to open consulates along Persia’s eastern borders. His job was to deter Russian expansion towards India. Unpaid, he rode through thousands of miles of the harshest desert, marsh, and mountain. While a consul at Meshed during a very turbulent time, he bugged the Russian consulate and, armed only with diplomacy, single–handedly faced down a Russian attempt to annex northeast Persia. During World War I, Wassmuss, “the German Lawrence,” incited the southern tribes of Persia against the British. Sykes, who knew everyone that mattered in Persia, was sent out to raise a regiment of villagers to keep Persian oil safe for the Royal Navy. Persia in the Great Game is an engagingly written, superbly researched biography of an astonishing character who hunted gazelle with princes, read Persian poetry, sat at the feet of dervish masters, and got to the heart of a country.

Product Description:
The extraordinary story of Sir Percy Sykes and his unique role in preserving British interests in Persia between the 1890s and World War I—offering a valuable insight into Iran today and its edgy relations with the outside world.

Sharq, Daily Newspaper, No. 356, Dec. 2nd, 2004, Page 5
By : Parviz Varjavand
Word Count : 1148

Celebrated Iranologist Parviz Varjavand says the American National Geographic Institute has baselessly used the fake name of Arabian Gulf for the Persian Gulf. He believes that Arab governments have financed such unprecedented move. The American institute has also claimed that Iran has occupied three islands of Abu Moussa, the Lesser and the Greater Tunbs in the Persian Gulf.




The US-based National Geographic Institute has in its latest atlas parenthesized the fake name of “Arabian Gulf” in front of the “Persian Gulf” of Iran. In the meantime, the United Arab Emirates has groundlessly repeated its allegations of ownership of three Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf. Some Iranian circles have strongly reacted to these events.

We should first see what materials the atlas contains. The Persian Gulf has been referred to as Arabian Gulf, the Kish Island is introduced as “Qis” while Lavan is referred to as “Sheikh Shain”. Above all, the atlas highlights the Iranian islands of Abu Mussa, the Lesser and the Greater Tunbs as “occupied by Iran” and “claimed by the United Arab Emirates”. Such action has set a precedent for a credited atlas. The three islands belong to Iran and only a newly established sheikhdom lays claim to them. The United Nations and other international bodies have endorsed Iranian sovereignty on these Persian Gulf islands. Many are the countries still disputing islands since the end of the World War I. But as long as the flag of a country flies on an island no geographical institute dares to question its sovereignty de facto.

Whatever the National Geographic Institute has done is designed for threatening Iranian sovereignty on its own islands and pressuring Iran. The Americans have in fact designed a plot to have Iran file a lawsuit against the National Geographic Institute at an international court of justice so that they can give an international image to UAE’s baseless claims and push Iran into difficulties. Iranians should watch out for such schemes and should not take any unwise action. Under such
sensitive circumstances, senior Iranian researchers should tender a letter of protest to the American institute and demand internationally recognized geographic experts and historians to take a position against the distorted names. Iranian university professors based in the United States should also speak out so that the National Geographic can reconsider its atlas.

Historical Background

Documents deriving from Greek and Roman resources to post-Islamic period indicate well that the salty waters in the south of Persia were known as the Persian Gulf. This name was registered since the reign of the Achaemenians. Greek philosophers like Ptolemy and Strabone have referred to the Persian Gulf as “Sinus Persicus”. The latest name is also used in a map of the world designed by “Henricus Martlos” in 1492. Even Arab travelers and geographers have introduced this gulf as the “Persian Gulf”, “Non-Arab Gulf” and “Persian Sea”. Event the Sea of Oman is included in the Persian Gulf. Some of these geographers are Ibn Khordad, Ibn Faqih, Estakhri, Masoodi, Moqaddasi, Ibn Qomal, Yaqout Homavi and Ibn Batouteh. Georgi Zeidan has referred to the Red Sea as the “Arabian Gulf”.

Britons Used Arabian Gulf

British representative to the Persian Gulf Sir Charles Belgrio was the first one to use the fake name of “Arabian Gulf” through 1926-1957. The seasoned diplomat used this fake name in a bid to damage Iranian reputation in the region. That is the case while his predecessor has referred to the waters as the Persian Gulf in his “Welcome to Bahrain”.

Gamal Abdul Nasser took power in Egypt and he was swift to cut ties with Israel. He also nationalized the Suez Canal and that was when the British man took tough position against Iran and demanded that Arab nations refer to the Persian Gulf as the Arabian Gulf. That was when the Arab League ruled that all textbooks should use the fake name of Arabian Gulf. Arabs paid a lot to international newspapers and institutes to use the same fake name. Even customs checkpoints did not let any book or atlas containing the name of Persian Gulf enters Arab countries country.

Iran’s Sahab Geographical Institute organized an exhibition to attract the global attention to its rightful call. The fake name of Arabian Gulf was ordered by Gamal Abdul Nasser and oil-rich Arab countries were paying a lot to fabricate a history for themselves. They did not cease their efforts to satisfy the Great Britain.

The Islamic Revolution won a victory in Iran in 1979 while the Western nations were benefiting from oil bonanza originating from oil-rich Middle Eastern nations. Arab countries locked their horns to distort cultural facts in an attempt to sully the squeaky clean image of Iran. Enemies were also determined to cause secessionism in the country and the Iranian nation should be careful not to oil the wheels of separatists who introduce our country as “multi-national”.

Fabrication of geographical names was a creeping policy adopted by the world powers. It picked up speed notably in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Iranian nations should follow up these affairs very carefully and seek to know the historical facts. Colonial powers have been undertaking long-term plans to pay off now. In the course of the WWI, Pan-Turkists changed the name of “Ancient Albania” to the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russians preserved this title after they defeated the Ottomans. They had hatched plots to detach Azerbaijan from Iranian territory. Iranian journalist Malekoshara Bahar took position against this decision.

Several decades later, the former USSR detached Azerbaijan from Iran and annexed it into its land. Many could not understand that using the fake name of “Republic of Azerbaijan” was used to detach this country from Iran. Now the National Geographic Institute is using the fake name of Arabian Gulf and claims that Iran has occupied its islands. The negative consequences of such phenomenon will strike Iran in the near future. We should not forget our national interests. We should not forget the fact that the American institute wields much clout with the international bodies and 250 million individuals are at its service.

I propose that an ad hoc committee be formed from university professors in a bid to minimize the effects of this unwise action. The Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization should also serve as the secretariat of the committee. Damaging Iran’s valuable cultural heritage provokes irreparable consequences. Ancient cities and provinces should not be renamed.

Our countrymen have launched a cyberfight against this action but they should note that they have to exercise influence on American institutes and at least university professors. It is difficult to make the American institute revise its atlas and we should at least win over American intellectuals

 


360 HISTORICAL MAPS OF PERSIAN GULF

This book contains 360  historical printed maps of the persian gulf

 The PERSIAN Gulf in Historic Maps 1478-1861

تأليف: سلطان بن محمد القاسمي

  • الناشر: منشورات مدينة الشارقة للخدمات الإنسانية تاريخ النشر: 01/01/1999
  • يحتوي على: ۳۶۰ نقشه قديمی خليج فارس صور/رسوم
  •  For a long time printing was a technique mainly used for the spreading of cartographic knowledge among educated people. Printed maps contained data as umderstood by scholars at that time. The development of cartography in scholarly circles was hampered by the lack of data available and the printers themselves were often scholars at that time. The development of cartography in scholary circles was hampered by the lack of data available to scholars. Better data was often available elsewhere as can be seen in manuscript maps of Portuguese, Dutch, French or English navigators, but such data did not always arrive at the people who printed maps for the public. It was only during the 18th century that the world of navigators and the world of scholars and publishers merged into one.

    NEW MAP OF PERSIAN GULF BY UNITED NATION  

     http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/docs/escwa.pdf


    BBC PERSIAN GULF

     

     
     
     

    It is said to have withdrawn an invitation to National Geographic magazine to attend a festival because they refer to the Gulf as both.

    Iranian bloggers also launched a web action on the Google search engine.

    The words "Arabian Gulf" elicit a spoof message: "The Gulf you are looking for does not exist. Try Persian Gulf."

    The practice, known as "Google bombing", has been used in the past against George W Bush, who comes up under "miserable failure".

    The message parodies the text which usually appears when a web page does not exist, and goes on to recommend that users should read "some history books".

    It is the second time Iranian bloggers have united to make a political point.

    Earlier this year, they used their weblogs to direct users to pro-reformist websites and online newspapers that had been closed down by the Iranian authorities.

    Al-Jazeera under fire

    In Tehran, organisers of a photo festival told the AFP news agency they had invited National Geographic's picture editor, Susan Welchman, to join them on the jury for the exhibition's competition, but said she was now no longer welcome.

     

    Iranian officials objected to the fact that the latest issue of the magazine's atlas refers to the stretch of water as "The Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf)".

    National Geographic has already been banned from going on sale in Iran, pending a "correction" of the atlas.

    On Monday, Iran threatened the Arabic satellite TV al-Jazeera with action for an online animated cartoon published in the wake of the National Geographic ban.

    It shows an Iranian cleric ignoring regional problems in favour of taking action over what to call the Gulf.

     

    Tehran -- They were just two small words, a parenthetical aside on a National Geographic map. But that's all it took to get fiercely proud Iranians to rise up this week against what they saw as an attack on their history.

    In its latest world atlas, National Geographic added the name "Arabian Gulf" in parentheses beneath "Persian Gulf" on a map to label the body of water that cuts along the coasts of Iran and its Arab neighbors.

    The use of "Arabian Gulf," and the implication that Iran may somehow be losing its historical claims to dominance of the ancient seas, pierced the cultural pride that pervades the land once known as Persia. It gave fresh life to the long and often bloody tensions between Iranians and Arabs and added fuel to a widely held Iranian suspicion that Arabs have been quietly lobbying for years to change the name of the gulf.

    So keen was the perceived slight that it brought a fleeting unity to Iran's far-flung political spectrum. From the left to the right to the disaffected, Iranians blamed the "Zionists," accused the Arabs and lambasted the Americans.

    The government banned National Geographic from selling its publications here or sending journalists into the country.

    Even computer techies were stirred to action and pulled off a "Google bomb," manipulating the search engine to obtain a high ranking. Type "Arabian Gulf" on Google, and the first link is to a Web site that announces, "The gulf you are looking for does not exist. Try Persian Gulf."

    National Geographic remains unapologetic. The publication recognizes "Persian Gulf" as the primary name, but "we want people searching for 'Arabian Gulf' to be able to find what they're looking for and not confuse it with the nearby Arabian Sea," said Allen Carroll, chief cartographer on the National Geographic Web site.

    From Thursday's Baltimore Sun
    Another name for gulf sets off a wave of anger
    Sea change: A map maker gets caught up in a dispute over what to call the body of water -- Persian or Arabian.

    By Frank D. Roylance
    Baltimore Sun Staff

    Originally published November 24, 2004, 10:13 PM EST



    For thousands of years, the people of ancient Persia and their descendants in modern Iran have called it the Persian Gulf.

    But the National Geographic Society's map makers noticed that some U.S. military agencies and other map gazers use the name Arabian Gulf for the body of water on Iran's southwestern shore. So they altered the 8th Edition of the society's influential Atlas of the World to include Arabian Gulf as an alternate name (in parentheses) under the traditional title.

    That has landed them in hot water with Iranians from Los Angeles to Tehran. Not to mention the Iranian government, which on Tuesday banned National Geographic's publications and journalists from the country until the organization "corrects" the atlas.

    The anger had been brewing for weeks. "A spit in us Iranians' faces!!" writes Padina Abbaspour in a reader-review of the atlas on the Amazon.com Web site. "This is you people trying to change and alter History and what is written down for generations!!"

    The emotion reflects Iranians' deep pride in their ancient culture, and a long history of enmity toward regional Arab powers such as Iraq, with which Iran fought a bloody eight-year war in the 1980s.

    National Geographic has received thousands of e-mails on the subject, and Amazon.com has posted hundreds of reader reviews of the $165 atlas, mostly from angry Iranians. Some of them see geopolitical conspiracy.

    "It is a shame to see what once was a respected journal turned into a political backroom wheeler & Dealer and an Arab slave," wrote R. Zomorodi from Los Angeles. "The reason is due to the fact that The Saudi Royal family owns a large amount of shares in all US media and journals."

    The emotional dispute has put Allen Carroll, National Geographic's chief cartographer, in the hot seat.

    "We try to retain our independent judgment and not to be swayed by a response from a group with a particular interest," Carroll says. In a statement on the society's Web site, he defends the atlas, but promises to add "explanatory" and "clarifying language" to future editions.

    Carroll has seen similar uproars before. "For instance, the Sea of Japan --. The Koreans want us to use the term East Sea," he says. And new atlas includes East Sea in parentheses.

    Iranians are alleging other mapmaking insults, including a description of three tiny islands in the Gulf. Designated as Iranian in the last edition of the atlas, this time they're labeled as "Occupied by Iran" but "claimed by the UAE ."

    That change triggered this online eruption from an entity in Los Angeles called the Iran National Front USA: "The enemies of Iran should know, so long as there is one Iranian alive with blood pumping through his or her heart, even the thought of taking one grain of Iranian soil, will strongly be opposed and defeated. Long Live Iran."

    It was all so predictable, says James E. DiLisio, professor of geography at Towson University. "I'm surprised the National Geographic got in the middle of it," he says.

    Ethnically, Iranians are mostly Indo-European, not Arab. Ethnic and territorial disputes in the region go back "to Babylon and Nebuchadnezzar and Darius the Great back before the birth of Christ and before Islam appeared on the scene," says Geoffrey Kemp, director of regional strategic programs at the Nixon Center in Washington.

    In the past 10 years especially, he says, Iranian nationalism has resurfaced as a force in the Islamic republic's foreign policy, even among reformers.

    "We have a lot of positive things in Persian culture, and we want to preserve them," says Mohammad Ala, an Iranian-born business professor at California State University in Los Angeles. "Our history is 7,000 years old," he adds, arguing that even the prophet Mohammad spoke of the Persian Gulf.

    National Geographic's 8-pound Atlas of the World has no official status. But among geographers, it's considered authoritative. "If you're after a daily reference, the National Geographic is the one we normally look at," says Towson's DiLisio.

    Experts agree that the name Persian Gulf, or Khalij-e Pars, predates Arabian Gulf by a long shot. "The earliest references stemmed from the time of the Sumerian rulers in the third century B.C. That ought to be old enough to establish it," said James Bill, an Iranian specialist at the College of William and Mary.

    British cartographers adopted the name Persian Gulf at the turn of the last century when the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was formed to tap Iranian oil, DiLisio says. When Standard Oil of California found oil on the Arabian side of the Gulf, he says, the Americans began using Arabian Gulf on their maps in deference to their hosts.

    Pan-Arab nationalists adopted the use of Arabian Gulf in the 1950s as symbol of their movement.

    "There's nothing people get more exercised about than the names of things," Bill says.

    Some organizations simply call it "the Gulf" to avoid ruffling feathers, which also angers Iranians. "History is not a commodity you buy at Wal-Mart and discard after you get your immediate use out of it," says Mojtaba Aghamohammadi, an Iranian-born professor of diversity studies at the University of Phoenix. Iranians identify "existentially" with the name Persian Gulf, he argues, and "when you mess with people's identity, that's when war begins."

    If Arabian Gulf has gained in popularity, it's not the result of overt policy. The United Nations requires Persian Gulf in all its documents. Persian Gulf has also been the only label sanctioned for U.S. government use since the State Department's Board of Geographical Names settled the issue in 1917.

    Even so, U.S. agencies don't always comply, says State Department Cartographer Leo Dillon: "Part of it may be ignorance of the decision. Part of it may be working with Arab allies."

    The National Geographic Society has almost always used Persian Gulf on its maps. But about three years ago the Emir of Sharjah, one of the seven United Arab Emirates, made a visit arranged by the president of American University, which has business ties with Sharjah. The emir alerted cartographers to the disagreement between the UAE and Iran over the ownership of three Gulf islands -- Abu Musa and the two Tunb Islands. "We weren't aware of the dispute," says David B. Miller, [U]senior editor with National Geographic Maps.

    But the emir wasn't finished. "He also mentioned that the Arab states along the southern shore call the Persian Gulf the Arabian Gulf," Miller recalls.

    The cartographers knew the U.S. military often used Arabian Gulf, and its editors were seeing more frequent usage of the term in print and online. "We didn't want to change the name," says chief cartographer Carroll. But "we also didn't want people to go to our atlas looking for the Arabian Gulf and not find it."

    So, the mapmakers added Arabian Gulf as an alternate name (in parentheses), beneath Persian Gulf. And the three disputed islands were re-labeled as "Occupied by Iran (claimed by U.A.E.)."

    Miller says, "We wouldn't recognize any forced occupation or administration of sovereign territory."

    But furious Iranians point out that the same atlas shows the disputed Golan Heights -- captured by Israel in 1967 -- not as "occupied" Syrian land, but as part of Israel, with a dotted line indicating the "boundary claimed by Syria."

    Miller explains that "what exists on the ground, we try to show on our maps." The atlas reflects the fact that Israel annexed the Golan Heights in 1981, he says, but that its claim is controversial.

    Cartographers made the changes "with no intention of offending anybody," he says. "But sometimes no matter how hard we try, we make some of our readers or customers unhappy."

    AN ARTICLE ABUT  NAME OF PERSIAN GULF AND CASPIAN SEA .MAG.IRAN


    The Persian Gulf was is and will be the Persian Gulf

    The Persian Gulf is the Persian Gulf

    Author: Dr. Assad Homayoun
    Washington, D.C.


    September 3rd, 1999

     

    HISTORICAL  facts are known and self-evident. Throughout the years, a few of Iran’s neighboring countries have claimed many of Iran’s men of sciences and letters as their own. Sadly enough, now there is yet a new vain attempt to re-name that body of water which for several millennia has been universally known as the "Persian Gulf" to the "Arabian Gulf ".

    There are those who are unaware of the historical truths and while they do not bother to study the history of the region, they unintentionally contribute to a psychological warfare against the Iranian people. Among them, are certain elements in the U.S. Defense Department, specially those who serve in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain. In order to appease local sensitivities, "they" use "Arabian Gulf" instead of the "Persian Gulf" simply to please their hosts, unaware that they are refusing to accept historical facts and international usage. Indeed they are offending the national feelings of the Iranian nation.

    The ancient Greek geographers and historians called this body of water "Sinus Persicus". It is interesting that since before the time of Christ until as late as the 17th century, the world greatest historians and cartographers from Strabon and Ptolemy to famous Flemish geographer, Mercator, along with Arab historians referred to the Gulf south of Iran as either "Sinus Persicus" or "Mare Persicum", as distinct from "Arabicus Sinus", the name they used to refer to what is known as the Red Sea.

    The "Arabian Gulf " was the ancient name of the Red Sea, actually a gulf prior to being connected with the Mediterranean via the opening of the Suez Canal. For the last two millennia the term "Persian Gulf" has been used universally by historians, geographers, scholars, strategists and politicians. Also Arab historians and geographers from Ibn al-Mujawir to Yusuf Kamal, author of "Monumenta Cartographica", used "Al-Khalij al-Fars", or Persian Gulf. The late president Sadat of Egypt, in his book, "Revolt on the Nile", correctly identified the Gulf by its historical and original name.

    Anyone who has troubled himself to look at antique maps, contemporary writings and research documents, historical accounts of the region and encyclopedias written either by western or eastern observers and scholars would conclude that there is but one single name that is applicable to the Persian Gulf. It is the practice of the White House, the State Department, the U.S. government agencies and also the United Nations Secretariat, and National Geographic Society, to use in the document and maps the term "Persian Gulf" to indicate the body of water between Iran to the north and east and a number of other states to the south and west. It is a long established usage that is followed by publishers of atlases and geographical dictionaries.

    It was in the 1950s [and in order to manipulate the simple yet vital nationalistic sentiment of its people] that the then Iraqi president Colonel Abdol Karim Ghasem, ventured to refer to the "Persian Gulf", as the "Arabian Gulf". His intention was to create a new common enemy for the Arab world which were busy fighting Israel under the guidance of Egyptian Colonel, Gamal Abdol Nasser, and to divert the attention of Arab world from Nasser’s leadership in Egypt to his own in Baghdad. This strategy back-fired in the true sense of the word. The scholastic community in Baghdad as a whole, and the faculty in the Baghdad University, especially due to overwhelming amount of historic and geographical evidence, reaching back to records as ancient as 2.5 millennia, refrained from supporting the belligerent and the unfounded claim of Colonel Abdol Karim Ghasem .

    Even later, when President Gamal Abdol Nasser under the pretext of enhancing his Pan-Arabist ideology proceeded to use Ghasem’s self-invented term for the "Persian Gulf", he was instantly reminded of his own earlier comments wherein he had emphatically described the boundaries of the Arab World as: "Menal Moheet al-Atlasi elal Khalij-ol Farsi" (from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf).

    As mentioned before, throughout history, educators, historians, travelers and geographers have always referred to this region as the "Persian Gulf" not only because of the vast coastal lines of various Persian Empire or the number of its Persian/Iranian inhabitants, but simply, and in their own words, to recognize the noble notion that, "The Persians were the first to have developed and greatly improved this part of the earth".

    Therefore, to apply the term "Arabian Gulf" or any other name to the Persian Gulf is an error, and indeed is to participate in the psychological warfare mainly aimed against the Iranian people. Thus, this change of historical name, especially by some in the service of the U. S. government who are serving in the region, is entirely absurd, counterproductive, and does not serve the interests of the United States.

    We can hope that sooner or later, the rule of reason and rationalism will triumph in Iran and liberty and democracy will replace the Theocratic regime in Tehran. Iranians and Arabs must live together in peace. The Untied States and the Arab nations of the region need to deal with the people of Iran, in a just and equitable manner, just as the Iranians need to deal similarly with their neighbors. Furthermore, Iran must reestablish friendly relationship with the United States on the basis of mutual trust and equality . The U.S. Department of Defense and especially the Navy which always take geo-strategic factors into consideration, must also take seriously the historic sensitivity and the rightful concerns of the Iranian people .

    It should be remembered that for three decades prior to the revolution in Iran, the Pentagon trained close to 30,000 members of Iranian Armed Forces and considered Iran a principal element of the region's stability. It ought not forget the past and close the door to future friendly relationships which will indeed be essential for stability and peace in the Persian Gulf. It should be remembered also that the Iranian Navy played a crucial role as the stabilizer for two decades following the British withdrawal from the Persian Gulf in 1971. Indeed it was the Iranian Armed Forces which defended both north and south of the Strait of Hormuz against Marxist subversion. On one hand it prevented the fall of Oman, and on the other hand it thwarted the Yemeni inspired guerrillas to undermine the Persian Gulf Sheikdoms.

    Iran is a land bridge between two centers of the world’s most important energy zones, and the only power among the Persian Gulf states that has the capability to undertake military operation beyond its own frontiers. Iran is in the heart of the Eurasian Corridor. Because of its geo-strategic location, population, resources and cultural identity it can play a decisive role in the security of the Persian Gulf. Iran was once a moderating force and it could, once again become a moderate regional force, friendly to the United States.

    For more information and clarification we would like to refer the readers to following publication mostly written by historians, geographers and scholars regarding the Persian Gulf. We are certain that only through rational channels we can shed light on and sort historical facts from baseless propaganda, which were at one time aimed to toy with the territorial integrity of Iran, albeit currently being directed in reaction to the short-sighted policies and irresponsible political behavior of the ruling clerical regime of Tehran.

    1) Revolt On The Nile, Anwar Sadat, John Day Inc. New York, 1957
    2) Monumenta Cartographica et Aegypti ( Le Caire), Yusuf Kamal, 1926-51.
    3) Geographie, De Strabon, Paris, 1805
    4) Historical Geography of Iraq, Mohammad Rashid, Baghdad University, 1965
    5) Science and Civilization of China, J. Needham, Cambridge University Press, 1959
    6) The Past History of Arabs and Islam, Omar Abdol-Nasr, Beirut, 1962
    7) Political History of Islam, Dr. Hassan Ibrahim Hassan. Cairo, 1935

    Arab media


    News Analysis, Jalal Ghazi,
    Pacific News Service, Dec 10, 2004

    Editor's Note: Arab media are tracking Iran's emerging strategic importance with great interest, watching as the nation skillfully plays its nuclear and oil cards against U.S. desires for the region.

    Arab media are mesmerized by Iran's ability to outmaneuver the United States, not just on the nuclear front, but in Iraq as well.

    Some observers believe the only solution to the Iraqi conundrum is to divide Iraq into three federated states. But because most Iraqis share the same Shiite faith as the Iranians, sooner or later Iran will extend its influence over Southern Iraq. Iran could then control a huge part of the world's fossil fuel resources. If this should happen, the United States will have no choice but to welcome a "New Persian Empire," as it did for nuclear-armed enemies the Soviet Union and China.

    No single country has benefited as much from the war on terror as Iran. America eliminated two of Iran's fiercest enemies, with which Iran shares long borders to the east and the west: the Taliban in Afghanistan and Saddam Hussein in Iraq. And because the United States is bogged down in Iraq, Iran feels free to expand its influence, developing its nuclear technology and strengthening its economic ties with China and Europe.

    In Iraq, the Americans routed Iran's Baathist enemies, and empowered the Iraqi Shiites. After being oppressed for 35 years under Saddam, the Shiites are now uniting under the roof of what is known in the Arab world as the "Shiite House." The upcoming Iraqi elections will only legitimize the role of the interim government, which the Iraqi Shiites have been controlling since the regime's fall.

    Iran could not agree more with U.S. President George W. Bush's demand to hold Iraqi elections on Jan. 30, 2005, despite strong reservations by some Arab countries in the Gulf, which ironically are now accusing Iran of having common interests with the United States. The London-based Al-Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published an article titled "The Lebanon-ization of Iraq," criticizing the upcoming elections and warning that, should the Iraqi Shiites win illegitimately, the whole region could ignite in ethnic conflict.

    Arab media have also been suspicious of the relative calm that has prevailed in Shiite areas in central and southern Iraq since the start of the U.S. occupation. They also question Iraqi Shiite leader Ali Sistani's silence toward American military operations in Falluja. Hoda Husseni, in the Dec. 2 Asharq Al-Awsat, writes, Iran want to open back-door negotiations with the United States in order to ensure that the elections take place on time."

    The United States believes that the Iraqi Shiites will not be controlled by Iran. This is due largely to Ali Sistani's assurances to the Americans that he rejects establishing a religious state in Iraq modeled after the one in Iran. Many Arab media are skeptical.

    "Nothing guarantees that Iran will stay neutral and not influence the new Iraqi government, not only because it shares the same religious sect, but also for political objectives," a commentator on Abu Dhabi television said recently.

    Meanwhile, Iran has been airing "news reports" that more closely resemble advertisements urging Iraqis to vote. These spots appear on Al-Alam Television, an Arabic language TV station owned by the Iranians and widely watched in Iraq. They use quotes from Sistani, such as, "Your religious duty is to vote," and, "Your vote is more valuable than gold." The reports also strongly argue against postponing the elections.

    Though they may be concerned with Iran's ability to foment Shiite unrest in the Arab world, many Arab commentators are not threatened by Iran's alleged nuclear weapons ambitions. To the contrary, they see an Iranian nuclear bomb as a counter-balance to Israel's nuclear arsenal. In fact, some Arab media admire Iran's ability to forge ahead in developing nuclear technology in the face of U.S. opposition.

    For instance, the independent, London-based Al-Quds Al-Arabi published a cartoon that poked fun at the lack of Arab ambitions to develop similar technology. It depicted a father trying to light his broken furnace and warning his son to stay clear in case of an explosion. The cartoon's title: "Arab uranium enrichment program for this winter."

    Arab media have also been buzzing over Iran's success in strengthening its partnership with China. According to Asharq Al-Awsat, after signing a 30-year, $70 billion natural gas deal with Iran, during a November visit to Iran the Chinese foreign minister told Iranian President Muhammad Khatami that "his country had discussed Iran's nuclear issue with both London and Washington" and had informed them that referring the matter to the U.N. Security Council would "complicate matters more."

    Commentator Khalis Jalabi similarly sees Washington's hands as tied due to its economic dependence on countries eager to do business with Iran. He writes in the Dec. 3, 2004, Asharq Al-Awsat that "about half of the world's dollar reserves are in Asian countries' hands." (Japan holds $462 billion and China $271 billion, in contrast to the America's $80 billion in reserves.) Their willingness to buy U.S. Treasury bonds keeps the dollar from dropping further. This has allowed Americans to "maintain a luxurious lifestyle." Yet, since the war in Iraq, many countries started buying euros. For example, Taiwan and Singapore have transformed 20 to 35 percent of its reserves into the euro.

    Husseni makes a similar point in Asharq Al-Awsat. "As long as Washington has a huge trade deficit and continues to rely on billions of dollars in Chinese and Japanese banks (to maintain the strength of the dollar), Iran will continue to win." Tokyo and Beijing, she says, would oppose any U.S. efforts to punish Iran economically, due to their need for Iranian energy resources.

    The Europeans are determined not to let Bush take Iran's nuclear program to the U.N. Security Council and repeat the Iraq scenario. China and Russia support Europe's position. Iran, it seems, is gaining more allies and more leverage by the day.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Persian_Gulf"

    Officially and historically it is known as the Persian Gulf (and is its ONLY name), unforatanately National Geographic wants to change that!

     SimonP

    Some people, especially many Arabs, argue that the Persian Gulf should be called the "Arabian Gulf". They raise two "reasons" for this: One is that, according to them, most of the peoples living around it are Arab(?!). Secondly, they "claim" that "Persian Gulf" has become something of an anachronism; because, according to them, the two nations bordering the Gulf Persia and the Ottoman Empire (who ruled the Arabs in the area) do not exist anymore (!) They claim that because the Ottomans have gone, and the state of Persia is now called Iran, the "Persian Gulf" today represents no "obvious" connection to any of the adjacent lands(!).

    The two claims above, however have nothing to with either international norms or simply the truth!

    First of all, geographical names are determined by historical facts and documentation regarding the place in question, not by the and birth-rate of certain nations that happen to rise around it! Otherwise, we would have to change the Gulf of Mexico into the Gulf of the U.S.! And after all, the supporters of the "Arabian Gulf" would better not even bother to waiste their energy for the population of Iran alone exceeds the sum of all other Arab states around the Persian Gulf.

    Secondly, the "Persian Gulf" does indicate an obvious connection to one of the nations living around it: the Iranians. While the name of the State of Persia has changed to Iran, the majority of Iranians belong to the Persian branch of the Aryan race and consider themselves as such; they speak Persian (the only official language of Iran), and the vast Iranian Province of Persia is still lying above the Persian Gulf. Iranians have called the Gulf beneath their feet the Persian Gulf for thousands of years, since their first ancient Persian Empire. (So have done the most prominent historians of ancient Greece.) All this said, if some people cannot see an obvious connection between the Persian Gulf and the Persian-speaking Iranians, that is their own problem (of lack of general knowledge)! It is like saying that the English Channel represents no obvious connection to the nation living above it because the state is called the U.K.! Iranians can be Iranian and Persian at the same time just as the English can be English and British simultaneously.

    Anonymous contribution needing NPOV and wikification

    Historical and unique name of The Persian Gulf and its equivalents in different languages has been continuously in used since 3000 years ago in all languages, cultures, and all civilizations throughout the centuries and across the world. More than 2000 ancient literatures, books and maps belong to the past three millenniums, which contain this historical and heritage name are proof to the Persian Gulf as the right nomenclature. It was in 1952 after confiscation of British Petroleum properties by Iranian government that false and politically motivated title of Arabian Gulf was suggested by BP. then it was Roderick Owen (a British representative in the then colonialized Emirates) that for the first time put this suggestion in his book The Golden Bubble of the Arabian Gulf, This suggestion was later imitated by some Arab extremists and fanatic leaders and the BBC was first to support this dirty conspiracy.

    Recent Distorting and denomenclature of the Persian Gulf name is not only an insult to the ancient cultures and injustice to the history and overall heritage of mankind but also an aggression to a universal accepted and established 3000 years ancient and heritage name. Assault to a heritage name is similar to the tragedy that happened to the Afghan Buda's statue and the museum of Baghdad on assaults of 12/4/2003 and all are criminal act. Persian Gulf, has been recognized as the real and rightful nomenclature not only by all ancient and past writers and historical nations but also by all modern international organizations and Int. societies among them the followings: 1- United Nation.  Incomplitization and distorting this historical name, is an illegal and unconventional act and in contrast to the resolutions of the UNGEGN and UN Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names.

    Converting this name by a new false name is a clear breach of international laws and regulations. If we don't react this heritage name will be vanished by petro monies of the fanatic leader in region. For detail in Persian language click: http://parssea.persianblog.ir Persian Gulf equivalents and synonyms = Mare de Persia -Sinus Persici- Mare Persio-Sinus Persico- Mare Perth- Mar Persiano,Mare Pers,Persiski Zaliv ,Persischer Golf ,Sino Persico,Pars sea,Bahre Fars ,Bahre Ajam, Perza Obol- Porucha Wan,Parsi tstsots- Persiste Habbugt. Persicus .Persicon Persique. Persicum. Parsitstsots. Persidski.

    Many organisation use "The Gulf", not just British. DJ Clayworth 15:30, 12 Aug 2004 (UTC)


    Quotation marks do not always imply doubt about a term - here they just mean we are talking about the name rather than the thing itself. DJ Clayworth 16:58, 12 Aug 2004 (UTC)

    Historic Names are Essential for Perspective

    The use of historic place names is vital to help people understand their world. Changing names to fit times and styles sometimes may be an attempt to hide or deny the past. Certainly, there is a lot in the past of every people that we might wish to forget, but it is neither healthy nor instructional to deny it. We are the evolution of the past. To know where we came from and how far we have traveled is important if we are to understand where we might go in the future as a global society.

    The Persian Gulf has been called by this name for thousands of years. Indeed, the world also walks upon Persian Carpets, and small art is compared to Persian Miniatures. These concepts have a meaning outside the current name of the country, or even the country itself. When the names in the Middle East change again, (and yet again after that) we don't want a rush to erase our past, but to realize that we are the sum of our past.

    Keeping the name Persian Gulf as with many other ancient names, is to accept that we all are human, that we have faults, that things change, and that who humanity was before was probably the best we could do at the time. This acceptance of ourselves through accepting ancient names is a foundation for self-respect which is appropriate for every nation, and every era.

    ---

    Historical and unique name of The Persian Gulf with its equivalents in different languages has been continuously used since 3000 years ago in all languages, all cultures, all civilizations throughout the centuries and across the world. More than 3000 ancient books and maps during the past three milliniums contained this historical and heritage name is a proof to this claim. It was in 1957 that Roderick Owen, a British representative in the then colonialized Emirates, suggested the title “Arabian Gulf” in his book "The golden bublle of the Arabian Gulf" The suggestion was later immetated by some Arabs fanatics, distorting a 3000 years ancient history, resulting in an insult and an aggression to the mankind heritage, universal accepted and established ancient name. Recent misuse of this name is not only an insult to the rich persian culture but also an injustice to the history and the overall heritage of mankind. Persian Gulf has been recognized as the rightful nomenclature by all international organizations among them the followings:

    1. - UN, United Nation.
    2. - UNCSGN-United Nation Conference on Standardization of Geographical Names.
    3. - UN Cartographic Unit Staff.
    4. - IHO–International Hydrographic Organization.
    5. - IMO- International Maritime Organization.
    6. - IAPO-International Associations of Physical Oceanography.
    7. - IHB- International Hydrographic Bureau.
    8. - United nation Documents on geographical names.
    9. - UNICODE- Encoding Standards Consortium.
    10. - ISO- International Standardization Organization.
    11. - IHA- International Hydrographic Association.
    12. - UNGEGN-United Nations Group on Geographic Names.
    13. - UNGIWG- United Nation’s Geographic Information Working group.
    14. - UNGIS- UN Geographical Information.
    15. - IAPO- International Association of Physical Oceanography
    16. - UNEP- United Nation Environmental Program.
    17. - UNESCO.
    18. - HABITAT.
    19. - WB- World Bank.
    20. - ICA- International Cartography Association.
    21. - UNGEGN-United Nations Group on Geographic Names.

    Misusing and distorting this historical name, is an illegal act and in contrast to the resolutions of the UNGEGN and UN Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names. Converting this name by fals is a clear breach of international laws and regulations.

    M. A.GONABADY Heritage Name Society


    Please note that what follows by a M. Gonabady is not accurate. None of the organizations that he names have a "rightful nomenclature". You are welcome to visit the site of any of the organizations and do a search on "Arabian Gulf". You will see there are hundreds of official documents using the name. Here is an example: www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/56/a56124a1.pdf The document in the example is a Note by the Secretary-General and distributed by the General Assembly on 26 July 201. It has numerous references to the "Arabian Gulf" and NON to "Persian Gulf"! It is irrelevant how, why, or for how long some Arab people started using the name "Arabian Gulf". The fact is that there are enough people that know this Gulf by that name alone that would warrant it's inclusion in all reference books as a secondary name. Exactly as National Geographic has done. Also, as an Iranian, I am ashamed of some of the things that my nationalist (read racist) fellow countrymen have done to deal with this issue. I apologize for it.
    Here are a couple of more examples that use "Arabian Gulf".
    http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/EURVP/web.nsf/Pages/Brussels+-+By+region+-+Middle+East+and+North+Africa (http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/EURVP/web.nsf/Pages/Brussels+-+By+region+-+Middle+East+and+North+Africa) The World Bank
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/med_mideast/intro/index.htm (http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/med_mideast/intro/index.htm) The European Union

    thank you . i saw all the document that u claimed i found the name such as arabin gulf institute of ... ,arabian gulf university of ...member of arabian gulf club of ... and etct ... it is very clear that this kind of sentences in UN document refer to the name of that institute and does not mean that UN and its agency recognized this new name for a body of water.thank you all.M.Ajam

    --BrainMafia 07:22, 8 Dec 2004 (UTC)
    BrainMafia, don't sabotage the page. Add your points to the bottom and direct the writer. This isn't an oratory forum. I debunked your UN document below. I do not know more about the other two to form an opinion. But I'm sure finding a reference on Google doesn't mean anything on its own. I wish you could understand that too. Kaveh (talk) 06:14, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)

    Questions

    Why my edit which changes the order of naming the local names for the Persian Gulf, and puts the Persian local name first and the Arabic name seconds immidiately changed back by some users? What is the reason for this? If it's the length of coastline, Iran has the longest. If it is the historical right, Persia (Iran) owned the whole of it for thousands of years. What is the reason for insisting on puting Arabic name first?

    Another question. Why some users insist on calling the actof delition of the adjective Persian from the name of Persian Gulf as an unbiased act which promotes "avoiding the debate"? --Mani1 06:38, 13 Aug 2004 (UTC)

    Repeated information

    The fact that some Arab fanatics and certain British institutions like to use their own falsified versions for this historical and legal name is explained fully in the second paragraph of the text and those falsified "variations" are named there. Naming them again in the beginning of the text is superfulous and that's why I omited them. There is in my opinion no need to repeat this information twice in a text. --Mani1 07:24, 14 Aug 2004 (UTC)

    Alternate names deserve to be mentioned early, so that people who know them by those names don't think we are talking about something else. DJ Clayworth 13:17, 16 Aug 2004 (UTC)

    There is nobody who does not know the name Persian Gulf and only knowing it as "the Gulf". So I think mentioning recent fabrications, once in the article is enough. --Mani1 15:41, 18 Aug 2004 (UTC)

    I agree with Mani1 one. Everywhere in Wkipedia the repeated information has been avoided, why some people insist that the information about the recent forgeries should be included twice in this article? --212.238.143.99 08:50, 15 Sep 2004 (UTC)

    This is about the names the area is called. Commonly, this is always mentioned in the first paragraph briefly. Then, we need to explain the details and the controversies in details, which is why it's mentioned lower again. BTW, please get yourself a user name. It's very easy and doesn't ask for *any* personal information. Even the email address part is optional. roozbeh 14:11, Sep 15, 2004 (UTC)

    Hi Roozbeh. I agree with the User:212.238.143.99 that mentioning that forgery twice is unnecessary. You said usually they do that. This is no usual case. Here we have to do with the childish and silly act of some petro-Shaykhs who want to use their petro-dollars to abuse and change the historical geographical names. By recognising their "fabrications" loudly and putting them as legitimate "variants" next to the legal and established name of this body of water, we give those Shaykhs a hand in their act. If I spend some money to print a few books in which the name England will be refered to as the Persialand, would you consider to put that next to the name England as a variant in the Wikipedia articles? --Mani1 09:29, 19 Sep 2004 (UTC)

    1. You are being biased here. Some people (not me) say that it's no forgery to call the place Arabian Gulf. Some people (not me) say that there is no abuse happening here, etc.
    2. We are not giving hands to anybody. We also mention all the names of the Aras River as Araks (Armenian) and Araz (Azerbaijani). Are we helping forgeries? No. We are helping our readers to find that when one talks about an "Arabian Gulf", or "the Gulf", he is referring to the same "Persian Gulf". We also mention lower that some people (including UN) call the area "Persian Gulf". The reader will be able to judge herself which name she wants to use. If she's talking to a chief of state from an Arab country, she may prefer to use the "Arabian Gulf" name in order to make sure he is not offended. Who are we to judge? And if we do judge, we should start judging all other cases, most specially the cases of Palestine, Karabakh, Taiwan, Kashmir, ... We don't do that, because of NPOV.
    3. If you spend that money and publish the books, I guess it will be OK to mention the new name together with the common name in the England article. But only after you published the books. Then, the new name will be judged based on its popularity and it will be mentioned that only a certain person in a certain number of books is doing that.
    4. Please don't forget that I personally prefer to call the region "Persian Gulf". But imposing my personal view would be against Wikpedia policy.
    roozbeh 12:53, Sep 19, 2004 (UTC)
    As I told before, mentioning those forgeries once in an article is more than enough. Wy do you insist on mentioning them twice?

    Also you should know that in English language only in a few books published by the petro-dollars, the childish forgery "Ara... Gulf" is mentioned. Those are the only cases. Let us see whether you have the impartiality to mention that in the article! --Mani1 07:31, 13 Oct 2004 (UTC)

    Wrong Category

    Why is Persian Gulf article listed in the "Arab category" of wikipedia? Can you please move it to Middle East or another Category more appropriate.

    Done. Kaveh (talk) 22:06, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

    Active Vandalism

    I removed this from the article:

    Apparently the history-revisionist pompous condescending author of this page needs to take its own advice and read some history (and a spelling book for the discussion page):

    http://i-cias.com/e.o/pers_glf.htm

    What does it say on the page about not posting if one doesn't want one's work unmercifully edited?? Will he/she be so revisionist pompous condescending dogmatic as to remove my comment AGAIN???

    Someone should lock the page untill these worked-up people go away. This one obviosuly has no idea what Wiki is, at least he didn't just blank the page like some of the other ones. And as for his point that some Arabs call the Gulf, "Arabian Gulf", it is incoporated in the text and with more details than the provided link.

    Please Be Fair...

    I realise that the area is 'officially' called the Persian Gulf in the UN...however it also officially called the Arabian Gulf in 22 Arab countries (not to mention there are more Arab countries lining the Gulf than Persian ones)...now that is a significant number of countries whos official line should not be ignored.

    Every Arab on the face of the planet calls it the Arabian Gulf and will continue to do so indefinetly...why is their stance not given a fair deal in the article?

    Even though the Persian Gulf is so called from a historical perspective this is not a valid reason for calling it so...things change: France was historically called Gaul...not anymore!!! Englishmen were historically called Anglo-Saxons...how often do you hear that today? Saudi Arabia was historically just called Arabia Kuwait was widely called Qurain prior to 1961 Bahrain was historically called Dilmun...........The list is **ENDLESS**

    Well...you basically said it yourself: the official name of that gulf in the English-speaking world jsut happens to be "Persian Gulf", and since this is the English-language Wikipedia, we should follow official usage of the name. If the broad majority of Arab-speaking countries uses the term "Arabic Gulf", then the Arabic Wikipedia should use that name, but not the English one. As for things changing...well, they might one day change so that "Arabic Gulf" beomes a common name in common English usage, but until then, it is not our job to work towards changing the name but to record what name people actually use - remember, this is an encyclopedia, not a platform for furthering any agenda.
    Additionally, I don't think adding joke links is a good way to garner sympathy for your views - if you think the naming dispute deserves a more prominent mention in the article (it's already mentioned in detail in the second paragraph), we can try and work out some way of phrasing this that everyone can live with. But redirecting valid external links to joke sites is not the way to go. -- Ferkelparade π 22:47, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)
    In that case I'll just add it in as another link..that way people can have both sites and make up their own mind...freedom of choice..THAT is the way to go! :-D


    What is your point? We are talking about waterways. Arabs also call the Pacific Ocean, some other Arabic name. Do we have to change that too? There aren't that many Arab countries bordering the Persian Gulf anyways. Even population-wise, Iran is more populated than the Arab countries to the south of the gulf. Besides this thing just started 40 years ago, I don't think nowadays anyone in their right mind try to rename historical places. I can find Arabic atlases with "Sea of Persia" clearly marked in them from the 1950s. Instead to countering these pointless moves by Arab tyrants, you support them?
    Firstly, no sane human would support a tyrant... but I am supporting my roots and I have no reason to be ashmed of being an Arab; and isn't calling the region the "Persian Gulf" supporting the terrorist ayotallahs of Iran, the same people supporting terrorist groups such as Hezbollah (a clear hypocrasy if you ask me!).
    , regarding your Pacific Ocean comment.. the Pacific Ocean does not hint to a certain ethnicity or nationality, it is a generic term which purely based on location (I think, but I could be wrong in this regard I have to admit!) hence, nobody is offended. If such a generic name was given to the Arabian Gulf then I would accept it no problem.
    But then again you are entitled to your opinions and I have to respect that...only time will tell what will become of the situation (imagine really dramatic music here to add effect!! :-D)
    Aren't the Hezbollah Arabs though? By your logic, we should call the Arabian Sea, the Pakistani Sea. But then again, they supported the Taliban! And you are not one people, a Moroccan Arab is nothing like a Saudi. It's not just about the language, even then, Moroccan Arabic is very different than the Saudi one! Besides, if we are to disregard national borders, and count anyone calling the Gulf "Arabian", then there is no reason not to do the same with Persian Gulf. And 5-6 billion call it that. BTW, there should be Arabs that call the waterway Persian Gulf. You haven’t asked every one of them, have you? Also, Persian Gulf is in your historical books, what do you do when quoting an old source? Just ignore the references to the Persian Gulf? Aren’t you by doing that, changing your "roots"? Isn't that a bit silly? And so what if “Persian” hints to an ethnicity, Indian Ocean does too. Are you going call that the “Ocean of Oman”, or “our own Omat Al-Arabiya” Ocean? Are you going to start vandalizing the Jerusalem entry and change everything to "Ghods"? Besides, your original point was that Arabs, who speak Arabic, call the Persian Gulf, something else. You never mentioned ethnicity. Is that what bugs you? Are you a racist? Be reasonable please.

    Solution to the Problem !!

    I, the WikiGenius, have come up with the best and most effective solution to this problem.. since it seems that the Arabs and Iranians are about to gut each other of this trivial matter...how about renaming the area the Middle Eastern Gulf ... accurate enough for locating the place, and vague enough not to wind anyone up...

    Alternatively, just call the place the American Gulf owing to the number of US warships and sea bases in the region!

    UN stuff

    This thing isn't supposed to be in the main article. These documents either exist or not. Now if you can demonstrate that they don't, you can remove them. But just linking to General Assembly and Security Council resolutions doesn't cut it for me. The UN has countless other forums. Here is the bit I removed:

    (NOTE: Both of these supposed resolutions have not been found on any of the UN resources! UN has ALL of the General Assembly and Security Council resolutions online going back to 1946. Find OTHER resolutions of interest here: www.un.org/documents If anyone can authenticate the validity of these "resolutions" please replace this note with proper reference.)

    Kaveh (talk) 22:54, 4 Dec 2004 (UTC)

    Fair enough. But why don't YOU demonstrate that they DO exist. (After all isn't it easier to prove something DOES exist than it DOESN'T?) The only bodies of the UN that pass resolutions are the General Assembly and the Security Council. And since they didn't pass such resolutions it does cut it for me! So here is the bit I removed, and you can put it back when you show us they are real:
    However, the Iranian government led two resolutions in the United Nations to officially recognize that body of water as the Persian Gulf. The first announcement was made through the document UNAD, 311/Qen on March 5, 1971 and the second was UNLA 45.8.2 (C) on August 10, 1984.
    I don't need to do that. It's an existing reference in the text. If you care enough you can take time to demonstrate that such claims are not true. You can contact the original person who put that bit of info in the article to help you. But you don’t just go around removing facts you deem suspicious from articles. You obviously don't much about how the UN functions. There are many other forums within the UN that hold meetings and pass resolutions. I quite frankly don’t know what your grudge is, as you seem have devoted yourself to this one particular article. I restore the text for now. Kaveh (talk) 02:23, 7 Dec 2004 (UTC)

    Whenever you prove that Iraq doesn't have weapons of mass destruction, I'll prove that these resolutions don't exist. It is ridiculous to ask someone to prove something that is not there! If you want to continue your irrational Bush-like logic, then I can add three (3) resolutions to your 2 well versed on how UN works maybe you can prove that those don't exist. And I didn't suddenly remove your so called "facts", I just questioned them, but you said I couldn't question them and moved my comment here. So naturally I think it would be fair to move the "questioned fact" here also until it is proven. You can't have your cake and eat it too.

    BTW, so just you know, as soon as someone adds anything to an article it becomes "existing reference". Why in your view should that make it immune to question?

    Finally, the original reference was put in there by an anonymous person so I have no way of asking them where they got it, if they care so much for its inclusion they can step forward and clarify the source. --BrainMafia 16:01, 7 Dec 2004 (UTC)

    Listen BrainMafia, I respect your opinion. But I fail to see the relevance of your points to this debate. I explain in simple terms. You have noted that you could not find the aforementioned resolutions in a UN website that contains the major General Assembly and the Security Council resolutions. I debunked by answering that that website DOES NOT contain every single declaration and resolution passed by very many forums of the United Nations. Now, the procedure in Wiki is when you doubt the validity of a point in an article, you note that part here in the talk section. The Persian Gulf resolutions were added more than a year ago. Since then, many active and respected members of Wikipedia have edited this article. You are welcome to follow this discussion to the bottom of things here in the talk section. But until you have managed to form a general conciseness, I ask you to refrain from removing facts from the article. This is not a pissing contest.
    For the benefit of public discourse, I explain my understanding of the situation. First of all, I am aware of specific directives by the secretariat of the UN that make direct demands as to only use Persian Gulf when referring to that body of water. However, they add when materials provided by governments are circulated, the terminology should be kept intact. Thus, it is no surprise that some UN documents exist with those references. The specific example you gave was the declaration of candidacy for a Bahraini delegate and was only stating his previous appointments to the "Federation of the Arabian Gulf States." The UN does not change official documents provided by its member states. It does however, use Persian Gulf in every document that it produces itself. Including the maps produced by its cartographic department. Furthermore, I don't believe "if Google cannot cache it then it doesn't exist!" I suggest you follow your own advice and spend some time in your local UN authorized library, where they archive most of what is circulates by the UN (and not just major resolutions, but daily declarations by EVERY dept. of the organization).
    Kaveh (talk) 06:00, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)

    Naming Issues

    It is really funny how Iranian care for the name!! It is and it will reamain PERSIAN GULF forever ... ).

    he first announcement was made through the document UNAD, 311/Geneva on March 5, 1971, and the second was UNLA 45.8.2 section C, on August 10, 1984. I would also like to refer you to this statement from the British Government http://www.persiangulfonline.org/images/afshin3.gif which was sent


    do you think arabs were behind N.G

    , on 12/9/2004 11:51:15 AM.

    Many Iranians think arabs were behind National Geographic's new "Atlas of the World" (8th edition, 2005), calling "Persian Gulf" by a phony made up name; but they are wrong!

    Since we rarely investigate things, we usually jump to a false conclusion. We first have to learn the history of "National Geographic" and the people behind it.

    Fortunately two American researches have done the investigation for us. Dr. Joan Gero & Dr. Dolores Root published an article in 1996 called "Public Presentations and Private Concerns: Archaeology in the Pages of National Geographic".

    National Geographic was established in 1888 by a group of powerful American Capitalists interested to expand America's influence elsewhere.

    Since its beginning National Geographic has been used by U.S. government as a cover for spying, making detailed map of other countries for U.S. military (before spy satellites became operational), and directly asserting U.S. foreign policy (Gero, Root; 1996).

    Now, we go back to the question of who were the groups behind National Geographic's new "Atlas of the World"? The same groups who have been at war with us for a long time: US, UK, Israel, and yes arabs too. But this act was mainly a US-UK-Israeli plan.

    Recall that it was not the arabs who called "Persian Gulf", by a phony name for the very first time; it was actually British Government!

    Nonetheless, US-UK-Israeli plan of helping their arab puppets, by damaging Iranian national interests has failed and it is actually helping Iranian nationalism.

    US-UK-Israeli plan of helping their arab puppets, by damaging Iranian national interests is actually helping Iranian nationalism.

    another reson for calling persian gulf as arabian gulf on this special time is that amarican occupation of Irak have caused more and more hatred to ameriacan so us want to make arabs less anger and attrac their attention but usa is complitly wron he will never could receive arabs favour by naming arabian gulf  and justifuy his wrong s

    Asia Times
    December 9, 2004

    All at sea over 'the Gulf'

    By Mahan Abedin

    The recent furor over the National Geographic Society's decision to use the fictitious term "arabian Gulf" alongside the historically and legally correct term "Persian Gulf" has had a much greater political impact and corresponding media coverage that many had anticipated.

    After all, the name "Persian Gulf", although long recognized by the United Nations as the only historically and legally valid term for the waterway separating the Iranian plateaus from the Arabian Peninsula, is not universally respected. The British Broadcasting Corp (BBC) and much of the British press have been calling it "the Gulf" for more than three decades. Moreover, even some organizations and publications in North America have not been immune to the financial inducements of powerful institutions and individuals inhabiting the western shores of the "Persian Gulf."

    The abuse of the name "Persian Gulf" has been ongoing for more than 30 years, but until now it has never caused much media curiosity, let alone a minor political crisis. But this time around things are very different.

    First and foremost, the Iranian government has entered the fray for the first time and banned the National Geographic Society (NGS) from Iran until it corrects its mistake. Moreover, Iranian communities worldwide have become involved in a campaign against NGS; an online petition has so far generated more than 70,000 signatures. Iranian bloggers have been at the forefront of the campaign, with the more creative among them even generating a "google" bomb whereby those searching for the politically constructed name "arabian Gulf" are directed to a site where they are presented with historical facts about the body of water.

    Many intelligent and curious observers may be tempted to ask what the fuss is all about. To understand fully why this issue generates such powerful emotions in Iranians would be impossible without a brief exposition of the history of the "Persian" Gulf.

    Millennia of 'Persian Gulf'

    It was the ancient Greeks who originally named the body of water separating the Iranian plateaus from the arabian Peninsula "Persious Sinus". This reflected both an appreciation of Persian civilization and a grudging respect for Persian naval prowess.

    Early Roman historians - in keeping with the traditions of the ancient Greeks - called the waterway "Aquarius Persico". Thus the ancient world universally recognized this strategic waterway as the Persian Sea, a recognition that has persisted throughout the ages.

    Even after the conquest of Iran by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century AD, there was no attempt to alter the name of the Persian Sea. The Muslim Arabs universally referred to the gulf as "Bahr al-Farsi" (Persian Sea) and duly respected the precedence established by the Greeks and the Romans. This precedence was in turn respected by the various Arab, Iranian and Turkish empires that held sway in the region for the next 1200 years.

    At what particular point in history the Persian Sea became the Persian Gulf is not altogether clear. But what is important and acutely consequential is that the United Nations has on two occasions formally recognized "Persian Gulf" as the exclusive term for the strategic waterway separating Iran from its arab neighbors.

    The first announcement was made pursuant to the document UNAD 311/Gen on March 5, 1971, and the second was pursuant to UNLA 45.8.2 (C) on August 10, 1984. On both occasions, all 22 Arab nations represented at the United Nations signed the documents.

    Some observers have traced the origins of the campaign to change the name of the "Persian Gulf" to the rise of arab nationalism and in particular, Gamal Abdel Nasser. In fact, this campaign predates Nasser by several decades and, like many other noteworthy events in that region, inevitably involved the British.

    The first person to propose changing the name of the Persian Gulf to the "arabian" Gulf was "Sir Charles Belgrave", the British adviser to the rulers of Bahrain in the early 1930s. Belgrave made the proposal to his masters in London, but both the Colonial and Foreign offices rejected it outright.

    The next attempt was made by a more consequential individual. After the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry by the nationalist government of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh in 1951, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co (AIOC) was desperate to sabotage Iranian interests in the region to avenge its losses. The task of reviving the "arabian Gulf" project was entrusted to "Roderick Owen", arguably one of greatest unsung heroes of the British secret state in the 20th century.

    Using the cover of a shadowy functionary of the AIOC, Owen was in fact a senior MI6 officer in the Middle East. The primary product of Owen's campaign was a book called "The Golden Bubble of the arabian Gulf". This book constituted the first literary work of any significance to popularize the term "arabian Gulf".

    Thus the campaign to distort and eventually displace the historical term "Persian Gulf" originates in the retreat and defeat of British colonialism in the Middle East.

    There is no doubt, however, that Nasser was the man - and the militant Arab nationalism that he represented was the ideology - that popularized changing the name of the Persian Gulf to accommodate arab chauvinism.

    Nasser was less interested in changing the name of international waterways than being seen to be confronting the Shah of Iran - who was almost universally disliked in the Arab world at that time.

    Nasser's Egyptian regime, using the financial resources of the small Arab sheikhdoms on the western shores of the Persian Gulf, started the global campaign to change the name of the Persian Gulf, in earnest.

    The leadership of this campaign was gradually appropriated by the new Ba'ath regime in Iraq. The post-1968 Iraqi Ba'athist regime struck a close alliance with the government of Abu Dhabi - the most influential constituent of the embryonic United Arab Emirates (UAE). This relationship proved decisive as the Arab-nationalist propaganda campaign of the Iraqi Ba'athists had recourse to the financial resources of the UAE. Interestingly, the government of Abu Dhabi retained its close alliance with the Ba'athist regime of Saddam Hussein right to the bitter end in April 2003.

    Several fake academic and research institutions were set up as fronts to propagate the politically motivated name "arabian Gulf". These organizations established extensive links with universities, publishing houses and cartographic centers around the world to offer inducements to adopt the "new" name for the strategic waterway. In time many Western academics, politicians and journalists were persuaded - thanks to generous financial incentives - to adopt the new name.

    This campaign had such a marked impact that in the mid-1970s the BBC decided to adopt the neutral term "the Gulf" for the waterway.

    This unprecedented move constituted the arab nationalists' greatest success, as the BBC had unrivaled power and influence at that time. Indeed, the ripple effect had immediate results insofar as much of the British press followed the BBC in adopting "the Gulf" as the primary point of reference. In due course some media on the European continent and a small minority of media and publications in North America adopted the BBC approach in stripping the "Persian Gulf" of its identity.

    Why 'Persian Gulf'

    Those who follow the BBC in calling for the institutionalization of the so-called neutral term "the Gulf" are missing several important points.

    First and foremost, the name "Persian Gulf" reflects millennia of history, and disrespecting this name inevitably diminishes the histories and civilizations that grew around this strategic waterway.

    Second, the name "Persian Gulf" has been legitimized by the highest international legal body, namely the United Nations. This legal premise is diminished at our peril; just imagine the crises that would erupt if nations took it upon themselves to rename the historical and legal names of seas and oceans. Imagine the Pakistanis calling the Indian Ocean the "Pakistani Ocean"; Texans renaming the Gulf of Mexico to reflect the identity of their own state; or the Iranians calling the Gulf of Oman the "Gulf of Iran".

    Clearly, renaming the historical identifications of places is no trivial matter and can have very adverse political consequences.

    Third, the campaign to change the name of the Persian Gulf, although rooted in the frustrations of a collapsing British Empire, has been driven by the politics of arab nationalism. This nationalism is now almost universally condemned as a failure, and any lingering dreams of pan-arabia dissipated with the fall of Baghdad and the ouster of Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003.

    After the Iranian government took its unusually robust stance against NGS, the arabic broadcasting network al-Jazeera put out a cartoon ridiculing the Iranian effort. The cartoon showed an Iranian mullah disregarding regional issues and "Muslim" unity (depicted in quintessentially distasteful and provocative al-Jazeera style by a U.S .soldier carrying away a Muslim woman) and instead opting to punish NGS for its disrespect for the Persian Gulf.

    While this kind of crude, provocative, false and hypocritical politicization is typical of al-Jazeera and the arab media generally, it is important to underline that this issue is not inherently political. It is about the history and heritage of a waterway that has had a Persian identity for millennia.

    In a statement on its website, the National Geographic Society said that while it considers "'Persian Gulf' to be the primary name, it has been the society's cartographic practice to display a secondary name in parentheses when the use of such a name has become commonly recognized".

    --Mahan Abedin is the editor of Terrorism Monitor, which is published by the Jamestown Foundation (http://www.jamestown.org), a non-profit organization specializing in research and analysis on conflict and instability in Eurasia. He has an MSc in Political Theory from the London School of Economics and is currently the director of an insurance consultancy. The views expressed are his own. http://atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FL09Ak03.html

    Other articles by Mahan Abedin:
    Iran at sea over Azarbaijan -- September 28, 2004
    http://www.worldsecuritynetwork.com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=10307


    The Persian Gulf" decleration <#hits#> <#hits#>

    Conspiracy to change a heritage name "The Persian Gulf"

    by M.Ajam, member of GHGN

    Historical and unique name of The Persian Gulf and its equivalents in different languages has been continuously in used since 3000 years ago in all languages, cultures, and all civilizations throughout the centuries and across the world. More than 2000 ancient literatures, books and maps belong to the past three millenniums, which contain this historical and heritage name are proof to the Persian Gulf as the right nomenclature. It was in 1952 after confiscation of British Petroleum properties by Iranian government that false and politically motivated title of Arabian Gulf was suggested by BP. then it was Roderick Owen (a British representative in the then colonialized Emirates) that for the first time put this suggestion in his book The Golden Bubble of the Arabian Gulf, This suggestion was later imitated by some Arab extremists and fanatic leaders and the BBC was first to support this dirty conspiracy.

    Recent Distorting and denomenclature of the Persian Gulf name is not only an insult to the ancient cultures and injustice to the history and overall heritage of mankind but also an aggression to a universal accepted and established 3000 years ancient and heritage name. Assault to a heritage name is similar to the tragedy that happened to the museum of Baghdad on assaults of 12/4/2002 and both are criminal act.

    Persian Gulf, has been recognized as the real and rightful nomenclature not only by all ancient and past writers and historical nations but also by all modern international organizations and Int. societies among them the followings:

    1- United Nation.
    2- UNCSGN-United Nation Conference on Standardization of Geographical Names.
    3- UN Cartographic Unit Staff.
    4- IHO-International Hydrographic Organization.
    5- IMO- International Maritime Organization.
    6- IAPO-International Associations of Physical Oceanography.
    7- IHB- International Hydrographic Bureau.
    8- United nation Documents on geographical names.
    9- UNICODE-Encoding Standards Consortium.
    10- ISO-International Standardization Organization.
    11- IHA- International Hydrographic Association.
    12- UNGEGN-United Nations Group on Geographic Names.
    13- UNGIWG- United Nation's Geographic Information Working group.
    14- UNGIS- UN Geographical Information.
    15- IAPO- International Association of Physical Oceanography
    16- UNEP- United Nation Environmental Program.
    17- UNESCO.
    18- HABITAT.
    19- WB- World Bank.
    20- ICA- International Cartography Association.
    Incomplitization and distorting this historical name, is an illegal and unconventional act and in contrast to the resolutions of the UNGEGN and UN Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names.

    Converting this name by a new false name is a clear breach of international laws and regulations. If we don't join hand this heritage name will be vanished by petro monies of the fanatic leader in region.


    Guardians for Heritage Geographical Names and
    Society for Historical Names. SHN . For more information:
    For detail in Persian language click:
    Persian Gulf equivalents and synonyms = Mare de Persia -Sinus Persici- Mare Persio-Sinus Persico- - Mar Persiano-Sinus Persico Mare Persio-Persiski Zaliv ,Persischer Golf ,Sino Persico . Pars sea- Bahre Fars . Bahre Ajam. Perza Obol- Porucha Wan-Parsitstsots- persiske Persiste Habbugt. Persicus .Persicon ¡ Persique. Persicum. Parsitstsots. Persidski.


    <#hits#> <#hits#> Ideological gulf times

    December 03, 2004 Ideological gulf inflames Iran

    by Michael
    Theodoulou in Nicosia 
            
    IT TAKES a lot to unite the Iranians, but National Geographic magazine
    has pulled it off. Everyone from the most devout mullah to the most
    fervent moderniser is unanimous in a furious response to what was
    perceived as a perfidious attack on the countrys proud civilisation and
    long history. The crime? The magazine added the words "Arabian Gulf" in
    brackets beneath "Persian Gulf" on a map to label the body of water
    that divides Iran from its Arab neighbours. The American-owned magazine
    has been banned from sale in Iran pending a "correction" of the map and
    its reporters are barred from visiting the Islamic republic. "We will
    not accept the use of the term Arabian Gulf, which is contrary to
    United Nations documents," Hossein Khoshvaght, the Iranian Culture
    Ministrys head of foreign press affairs, said. Under the headline
    "Persian Gulf Forever", the hardline Tehran Times fulminated that
    National Geographics refusal to use only the waterways historic name
    was "an unscientific and
    politically motivated measure". It detected the influence of "the an
    unscientific and politically motivated measure". It detected the
    influence of "the US Zionist lobby and the oil dollars of certain Arab
    governments" behind the parenthetical aside.

    The official outcry has been echoed in cyberspace, which has become a
    haven for liberal journalists and commentators after the hardline
    judiciary closed scores of reformist publications in the past four
    years. Keeping the worlds most vital oil waterway "Persian" is a
    national touchstone and a highly emotive issue.

    Iranian bloggers at home and abroad orchestrated an eye-catching web
    action on the Google search engine. A search for the words "Arabian
    Gulf" triggers a spoof message: "The Gulf you are looking for does not
    exist. Try Persian Gulf." In a parody of the text that usually appears
    when a webpage does not exist, it advises users to read "some history
    books".

    National Geographic refuses to back down. The publication recognises
    "Persian Gulf" as the "primary" name but says: "It has been the
    societys cartographic practice to display a secondary name in
    parentheses when use of such a name has become commonly recognised. The
    society does not attempt to make judgments about the validity of such
    claims but accurately to acknowledge the existence of conflicting
    names."

    NAME CALLING Falkland Islands (Britain) Islas Malvinas (Argentina)
    Derry (Irish Catholics) Londonderry (Unionists) Sea of Japan (Japan)
    East Sea (Korea) Kuril Islands (Russia) Northern Territories (Japan)
    Judaea and Samaria (Palestinians) West Bank (Israel) Former Yugoslav
    Republic of Macedonia (Greece) Macedonia (Macedonia)

    next article in archive
     
     
      
     






    UNCSGN-

    the best legal document are resoulusions of the organization of UNCSGN-United Nation Conference on Standardization of Geographical Names.
    according to this organization every geographical place have only one name and it recommend to keep the heritage and already stablish geo name
    as u know bbc and western massmedia using only name of Egypt according to UNCSGN only in case of ambiguaty organizations can put the local name of MESR IN PRANTESES BESIDE EGYPT. THIS IS the same for the persian gulf but since the persian gulf and its equivalents all known all over the word ther is no need to use new local and political motivated name of kaleej al arabi in the international maps this issue has been raised in 6th conference of UNCSGN in berlin october 2002 so the act of national geoghraphy and alas of filips are illegal and in opposite to ungegn and UNCSGN


    October 24, 2004

    National Geographic uses illegitimate name for the Persian Gulf in its 2005 Atlas

    Unfortunately due to powerful anti-Iranian activities and the typical incompetence of Iran, the southern states of the Persian Gulf who have only come to existence thanks to foreign powers, have slowly become more brazen. As a result the National Geographic Society has printed at least three major erroneous statements in its Atlas of the World 2005 (Eighth Edition,  regarding Iran and the Persian Gulf.

    Considering the fact that the National, Geographic is the biggest non-profit educational and scientific institution, it is hard for us to fathom how they made reference to the Persian Gulf with an unrecognized name. The United Nations, in addition to historical records and facts that date back more than thousands of years, have made it abundantly clear that the body of water in question is recognized as the Persian Gulf.

    The atlas also falsely claims that several Persian Gulf Islands belong to the newly created United Arab Emirates. It would appear that the National Geographic Society has joined hands with the enemies of Iran, and is now openly helping those who seek to compromise Iran’s territorial integrity. Perhaps the National Geographic Society should look back on it’s own maps to see that 33 years ago no entity by the name of United Arab Emirates existed, however Iran did. Furthermore, the National Geographic itself had previously always used the formal, and legitimate name, the Persian Gulf to reference the body of water in question (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/maps). The National Geographic’s stance encourages conflict in an area which has experiences relative calm with the use of the official and internationally recognized name of the Persian Gulf for centuries. Iran has existed for more then seven thousand years, and to now have a publication attempt to strip it of its historical territory will not be tolerated.

    The Atlas goes further to claim that the Persian Gulf Islands are being occupied by Iran. If anything is being occupied, it would be various parts of Iran that have been taken from us through illegal means starting 33 years ago.

    The MPG Party condemns the policies of the National Geographic that have made it possible for such illegitimate maps to be published. We look to hear from the National Geographic regarding the blunders they have made on their 2005 Atlas, and urge them to correct these errors, and to apologize to the nation of Iran for damaging our national culture and heritage in addition to our territorial integrity.

    The enemies of Iran should know, so long as there is one Iranian alive with blood pumping through his or her heart, even the thought of taking one grain of Iranian soil, will strongly be opposed and defeated.

    Long Live Iran.

    To National Geographic

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    I find it highly offensive for your organization to Change the historical name of Persian Gulf to "Arabian Gulf"! in your latest atlas.
    This while two resolutions in the United Nations officially recognize that body of water as the Persian Gulf. The first announcement was made through the document UNAD, 311/Qen on March 5, 1971 and the second was UNLA 45.8.2 (C) on August 10, 1984. Most countries and organizations use the proper and legal name Persian Gulf.
    World historical records abundantly make it clear that this body of water for many thousands of years has been called The Persian Gulf. I strongly condemn this offensive and colossal mistake (or politically motivated action?) in your part to compromise a well known historical fact and Iran's territorial integrity.
    Your actions, if not corrected, will be considered a total disregard to the
    History of the World, as well as International Laws and Regulations. This
    unjustified mistake can also be considered an act of hostility toward 70 million
    Iranian

     

    Today, the most common Arabic works refer to the sea in south Iran as the "Persian Gulf", including the world famous Arabic encyclopedia `Al-Monjad' which is the most reliable source in this respect.

    There are undeniable legal evidences and documents in confirmation of the genuineness of the term Persian Gulf. From 1507 to 1560 in all the agreements that Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch, French and Germans concluded with the Iranian government or in any other political event everywhere there is a mention of the name Persian Gulf

    Even in agreements with the participation of Arabs there is a mention of "Al-Khalij al-Farsi" in the Arabic texts and "Persian Gulf" in English texts, such as the document for the independence of Kuwait which was signed between the emir of Kuwait and representatives of the British government in the Persian Gulf.

    The fact of the matter is all Arab governments in the persian gulf region are only pupits of the British.



    Historical and *unique name of “The Persian Gulf” and its equivalents in different languages has been continuously in used since 3000 years ago in all languages, all cultures, all civilizations throughout the centuries and across the world. More than 3000 ancient books and maps during the past three milliniums contained this historical and heritage name is a proof to this claim. It was in 1957 that Roderick Owen, a British representative in the then colonialized Emirates, suggested the title “Arabian Gulf” in his book “ The golden bublle of the Arabian Gulf The suggestion was later immetated by some Arabs fanatics, distorting a 3000 years ancient history, resulting in an insult and an aggression to the mankind heritage, universal accepted and established ancient name. Recent misuse of this name is not only an insult to the rich persian culture but also an injustice to the history and the overall heritage of mankind.
    “Persian Gulf” has been recognized as the rightful nomenclature by all international organizations among them the followings:

    Misusing and distorting this historical name, is an illegal act and in contrast to the resolutions of the UNGEGN and UN Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names.
    Converting this name by fals is a clear breach of international laws and regulations.*

    M. Ajam GONABADY
    Guardian of Heritage Name

    Le Golf Persique

    Le nom traditionnel et historique du ( Golf Persique ) est connu dans diverses langues , cultures et civilisations depuis trois milles ans dans le monde entier. Tous les livres Atlas , les livres de l’histoire et la géographie parlent de cette nomination et aussi l’existence de deux cents livres littéraires, historiques et géographiques et plus de 1000 carte géographiques et Atlas comprennent le mot ‘ golf persy’ depuis longtemps et même avant le vingtième siècle témoignent de cette nomination bien méritée. Hors, depuis 1952 date de la confiscation des biens de la société pétrolière Britannique par des autorités Iraniennes, la conspiration a commencé pour changer ce nom historique quand Roderick Owen , le représentant britannique au Bahreïn avait proposé dans son introduction à son livre ‘ les bulles d’or du golf arabe ‘de le nommer ‘le golf arabe’ au lieu du ’ golf persy’ c’est ainsi que quelques fanatiques et extrémistes dans la région ont commencé à l’appeler ainsi.

     

    L’appellation du ‘Golf Persique’ est une vérité historique et géographique qui n’est pas seulement témoigné de la part des écrivains , historiens et civilisations de jadis et d’aujourd’hui ; mais aussi de la part des Organisations Internationales modernes qui reconnaissent cette réalité en se basant sur le style scientifique et les engagements judiciaires et ont ainsi refusé de changer cette appellation et on peut les citer comme suit :

     

    UN. Les Nations Unies

    UNCSGN. Le Conseil des Nations Unies pour la Documentation des Appellations Géographiques

    Le Département des Nations Unies pour les Cartes Géographiques.

    IHO. L’Organisation Internationale Pour la Géographie des Eaux

    IMO. L’Organisation Maritime Internationale

    IAP. L’Association Internationale Physical Oceanography

    L’Office International des Eaux

    IHB. Les Associations Internationales pour la valorisation des Océans

    UNICODE

    Documents des N.U. pour les Concepts Géographiques

    ISO- L’Institut International de Standardization

    IHA. L’Association Internationale des Cartes Géographique Hydrauliques

    UNGEGN. La Communauté des N.U. pour les nomos Géographiques

    UNGIWG La Communauté des N.U. travaillant sur les Informations Géographiques

    UNGIS. L’Organisation des Nations Unies pour les informations géographiques

    IAPO.L’Association Internationale des cartes physiques des océans.

    UNEP.Le Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement

    L’UNESCO

    HABITAT

    La Banque Mondiale

    L’Association Internationales des Cartes.

    ICA.

     



     


     

    by Kurosh Panahi, on 11/22/2004 11:32:11 AM.

    The following is from the UN directive in regards to the name of the Persian Gulf:

    UN directive of August 18 1994 {94-33224 (E) 180894} Stating: "Attention is once again drawn to editorial directive ST/CS/SER.A/29 and Corr.1 and Add.1 on the use of the term 'Persian Gulf'. The purpose of the present addendum is to urge that care be taken to ensure the appropriate use of this term in documents, publications and statements prepared by the Secretariat. The full term 'Persian Gulf' should be used in every case instead of the shorter term 'Gulf', including in repetitions of the term after its initial use in a text." Or the May 14, 1999 { 99-14427 (E) 200599 UNST/CS/SER.A/29/Rev.1} , which is stipulating the follow: "1. The term 'Persian Gulf' is used in documents, publications and statements emanating from the Secretariat as the standard geographical designation for the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. The full term 'Persian Gulf' is always used to designate that sea area when it is first referred to in a text and is repeated thereafter whenever necessary for the sake of clarity. 2. The term 'Gulf' is used in documents, publications and statements emanating from the Secretariat to identify or refer to the general geographical area surrounding or adjacent to the sea area referred to in paragraph 1 above or to refer to the situation around that sea area. The terms 'Gulf area', 'Gulf region' and 'Gulf States' are examples of such usage. "

     

     

     

     

    by Bahram

     


    us act united us

    this new mischevious act of some american paper, it first might seem to be the job of arabs but in a second thought, arabs are defeated and hummilated by western world specificaly US. they are not fit to do this kind of job nor they feel screwing around with iran at this point of time. the greatest arab capital in their entire history(baghdad) is under american's boots . we as persians cannt imagine how sad and frustrated they are. in their best shoot with sadam in 80s while persian gulf sheikes finanaced his war machine egyptians, jordanians and plasteneis were his soldiers and western world as whole was his supplier, they didnt accomplish noting that is exactly when evrything started going down to the hell for arab world "no victory"(we didnt win either YET)so happened what happened in 1991 all the way to today.this is to me sounds like an american plot more than anybody else, since they found out invading iran if not "impossible" it is unthinkable as far as their resources is concerened, unlike the typical idea of some of us US doesnt have unlimited resources since and the fact that pepole of iran arent going simply sit back and watch their land being invaded like almost 60% of iraqis are doing(no complain about that, they should rise up when we tell them and today isnt in our persian benefit to have them fighting with americans) so they wanted to slap on our hands and getting us mad about this arab thing which even themselves(americans)wouldnt believe it.However a good thing was the result of all this fuss, today as i write, evry iranian from shities to seculars to atheist from south to north and west to east from jews to armanians are united under one great roof shall we call it PERSIAN GULF

     

     

     

    A Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf.

    The gulf you are looking for is unavailable. No body of water by that name has ever existed. The correct name is Persian Gulf, which always has been, and will always remain, Persian.

    Arabian Gulf
    Arabian Gulf

    Arabian Gulf
    Arabian Gulf

      The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    Other Arabian Gulf Resources:

    www.parssea.persianblog.ir  خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir  خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

     

     

    Arabian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf.

    The gulf you are looking for is unavailable. No body of water by that name has ever existed. The correct name is Persian Gulf, which always has been, and will always remain, Persian.

    Arabian Gulf
    Arabian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    Other Arabian Gulf Resources:

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    Arabian Gulf

     

     

    Arabian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf.

    The gulf you are looking for is unavailable. No body of water by that name has ever existed. The correct name is Persian Gulf, which always has been, and will always remain, Persian.

    Arabian Gulf
    Arabian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    Other Arabian Gulf Resources:

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

    The Arabian Gulf is a new petro$ name  . Try Persian Gulf

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    no Arabian Gulf
    ... , do you mean Persian Gulf? ... If
    you typed Arabian Gulf, make sure you read some history books. ...
    arabian-gulf.info/

    The Persian Gulf
    ... I lived for many years in the beautiful Persian  Gulf countries of the
    Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates - editing and writing for the ...

    Resorts & Spas
    ... Leisure travelers can enjoy a garden and beach overlooking the blue waters of the
    Arabian Gulf, as well as a temperature-controlled swimming pool for adults ...

    Persian Gulf Online
    ... Click on this link as frequently as you can, so that it becomes the Google
    1st rank for "A... Gulf".  no Arabian Gulf. or. no Arabian Gulf #2. ...
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .
    خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf

    www.parssea.persianblog.ir .خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf

    ... Please try the following: Click the By Arabian Gulf, do you mean Persian Gulf? ... If
    you typed Arabian Gulf, make sure you read some history books. ...

     

    ... I lived for many years in the beautiful Persian (Arabian) Gulf countries of the
    Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates - editing and writing for the ...
    Resorts & Spas
    ... Leisure travelers can enjoy a garden and beach overlooking the blue waters of the
    Arabian Gulf, as well as a temperature-controlled swimming pool for adults ...

    Persian Gulf Online
    ... Click on this link as frequently as you can, so that it becomes the Google
    1st rank for "A... Gulf".  no Arabian Gulf. or. no Arabian Gulf #2. ...
    www.persiangulfonline.org/

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     

    Arabian Gulf
    ... Please try the following: Click the By Arabian Gulf, do you mean Persian Gulf? ... If
    you typed Arabian Gulf, make sure you read some history books. ...
    arabian-gulf.info/

    The Persian Gulf
    ... I lived for many years in the beautiful Persian (Arabian) Gulf countries of the
    Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates - editing and writing for the ...
    www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/3763/

    .org/

    Resorts & Spas
    ... Leisure travelers can enjoy a garden and beach overlooking the blue waters of the
    Arabian Gulf, as well as a temperature-controlled swimming pool for adults ...

    Persian Gulf Online
    ... Click on this link as frequently as you can, so that it becomes the Google
    1st rank for "A... Gulf".  no Arabian Gulf. or. no Arabian Gulf #2. ...
    www.persiangulfonline.org/

    ... خلیج العربی لا  no Arabian Gulf Gulf  لا خلیج خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf
    Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی no Arabian Gulf Gulf خلیج لا خلیج العربی لا  ...

     


    conspiracy against iran

     1) National Geographic uses the false name of "Arabian Gulf" in their atlas. They also call the three Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf "occupied by Iran" in the same atlas, and use Arabian names for the Iranian islands, including Kish.

    2) Discovery channel airs a most biased "Documentary" about the Spartans which they air at least once a week, over and over again. In this documentary the Persians are referred to as the "barbarians" and are pictured as very dark and incompetent warriors. According to this documentary some 300 spartans beat the armies of some 30,000 Persians. It is never questioned once in the documentary that the sources of this version of what happened were Greek... The Persians known as the "Barbarians" in the documentary, are belittled throughout the film, while the Greek Spartans are the superior heroes. At one point the female commentator states that the Western world owe their gratitude to these Spartans who saved the West from falling into the hands of the Persian barbarians, and that if it were not for them, the West could have been very different today. She goes on by saying that if it were not because of the heroic actions of the Spartan warriors, the brutal barbarian Persians would possibly have conquered Europe and the Europeans would have become the slaves of the Persian barbarians..... something like that. Incredible! The Persians who in those times did not approve of taking slaves...were a brutal barbarian people.... I don't know what to say...

    3) Discovery Channel airs a documentary about ALexander the Great. In this documentary, as well, the Persians are called "barbarians" and are pictured as inferior, brutal barbarians.


    4) Hollywood comes out with a new and very biased film about ALexander the Great, in which the Persians supposedly are pictured as semi-black Africans..... and everything else in the movie is upside down as well....

    5) CNN airs a segment about the high demand on "Islamic art" in the auction houses of the West. Never mind that 95% of all the art is Iranian/Persian.

    I can sense a heightened conspiracy going on against Iran and Iranians. It's about us, the uncivilized, brutal barbarians against the superior and civilized West (Represented by the Greeks). And in this conspiracy, our heritage, the Iranian civilization and culture is the victim side by side with history.


    Alexander was homosexual and brotal

     12/5/04
    Alexander the  guyes &Fake
    By Bahman Aghai Diba
    Several years ago an Iranian filmmaker had produced a TV serial about a certain period of the Iranian history. His version of the history was full of mistakes and he had moved in and out of the story some of the historical events arbitrarily and without any historical documentation or authentication. When he was confronted with the question that why he had “ distorted” the history and misled the people about the historical facts and added or replaced the historical events, he said: “I was making a film. I did not write history.”

    This week when I saw the film Alexander, by Warner Brothers, I was amazed to see the same things happening. Although the film has been considered as a low level, unimportant film by many well-known film critics (including the film critics of the Washington Post and Newsweek), and although it was really low level because of incorrectly showing of the costumes and designs of the concerned period both in Macedonia and Iran, there were numerous points fabricated by the Film.

    Some of them were:

    1- Unlike the narration of the film, Alexander set fire and destroyed the Royal Palace of the Iranian kings. The Ruins of Persepolis or Takhte Jamshid, near Shiraz in Iran are the clear sign of the Alexander’s “barbarity” in Iran and all of his military campaign.

    2- It was the Iranian King, Cyrus the Great (as recorded in the Old and New Testaments) that gave freedom to the territories that he conquered and set the Jews free from Babylon. He helped the Jews to build their temple. Alexander and his remnants in Persia (the Suluki Dynasty) did everything to eradicate the culture of Iran and they failed. The Iranian dynasties after the invasion of Alexander, the Ashkanian and Sasanids, in fact spent sometime to erase all of the imposed Greek cultural things in Iran. Today, there is hardly anything left of the Alexander’s invasion and the Suluki dynasty in Iran except than the ruins of Persepolis that was set to fire by Alexander. The sign of Alexander’s army was “ Owl” and Iranians consider Owl as the harbinger of destruction and a sign of bad omen.


    3- Alexander never set foot to India.(the india that alex saw was a name of a village in iran and not the Indian) He and almost all of his soldiers died in the passages of Afghanistan due to the hardships, and natural diseases. Unlike the story of the film, he never retuned to the center of Iran. He was killed and disappeared under unknown circumstances. Even the Greek Historians who were the experts in mis-recording the historical events (this point is attested by the narrator of the film) never mentioned that where he was killed and buried. I am sure if he died in Iran under the circumstances that the film claims, his whereabouts was clear.

    4- “Barbarian” was an expression made by the Romans to call the people who were not subject to the Roman law. Therefore, Iranians, and the Greek were both called Barbarians by the Romans. The expression has nothing to do with the Macedonians or the Greeks for calling the Iranians barbarians. In fact the film truly shows that the invading barbaric Macedonians faced a civilized nation out of the scope that they could dream. Just like the Arab invaders in a later juncture. The Macedonian and Greek “barbarians” approach to the Persia was like the behavior of peasants of the Middle Ages entering New York.

    5- Alexander was homosexual and he never married an Iranian dancing girl in the north of Iran. Although the Greeks have protested to the Warner Brothers for portraying Alexander as “bisexual”, it seems that the Warner brothers has done a favor to him. Alexander had no wife and no children. By the way, he was from Macedonia, and he and his father had invaded Greece (Athens and Sparta).

    6- Alexander and the Iranian army fought several times. The Iranian king did not consider him as serious threat and he did not participate in any war against him personally. He fled the royal palace, after an Iranian General committed treason and showed a strategic way to the Iranian capital to Alexander.

    I hope the Iranian experts in history explain these points in a better way.


    all the Arabic works

     

     all the Arabic works had refered to the body of water  as persian Gulf , including the world famous Arabic encyclopedia `Al-Monjad' which is the most reliable source in this respect.

    There are undeniable legal evidences and documents in confirmation of the genuineness of the term “persian Gulf”. From 1507 to 1560 in all the agreements that Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch, French and Germans concluded with all North of the persian Gulf governments or in any other political event everywhere there is a mention of the name persian Gulf

    Even in agreements with the participation of the nations north of the persian  Gulf there is a mention of "Al-Khalij al-farsi" in the Arabic texts and "persian Gulf" in English texts, such as the document for the independence of Kuwait which was signed between the emir of Kuwait and representatives of the British government in the persian Gulf.


    national geoghraphy

     - .

     

    , on 12/9/2004 11:51:15 AM.


    Many Iranians think arabs were behind National Geographic's new "Atlas of the World" (8th edition, 2005), calling "Persian Gulf" by a false  name; but they are wrong!

    Since we rarely investigate things, we usually jump to a false conclusion. We first have to learn the history of "National Geographic" and the people behind it.

    Fortunately two American researches have done the investigation for us. Dr. Joan Gero & Dr. Dolores Root published an article in 1996 called "Public Presentations and Private Concerns: Archaeology in the Pages of National Geographic".

    National Geographic was established in 1888 by a group of powerful American Capitalists interested to expand America's influence elsewhere.

    Since its beginning National Geographic has been used by U.S. government as a cover for spying, making detailed map of other countries for U.S. military (before spy satellites became operational), and directly asserting U.S. foreign policy (Gero, Root; 1996).

    Now, we go back to the question of who were the groups behind National Geographic's new "Atlas of the World"? The same groups who have been at war with us for a long time: US, UK, Israel, and yes arabs too. But this act was mainly a US-UK-Israeli plan.

    Recall that it was not the arabs who called "Persian Gulf", by a phony name for the very first time; it was actually British Government!

    Nonetheless, US-UK-Israeli plan of helping their arab puppets, by damaging Iranian national interests has failed and it is actually helping Iranian nationalism.

    US-UK-Israeli plan of helping their arab puppets, by damaging Iranian national interests is actually helping Iranian nationalism.

    another reson for calling persian gulf as arabian gulf on this special time is that amarican occupation of Irak have caused more and more hatred to ameriacan so us want to make arabs less anger and attrac their attention but usa is complitly wron he will never could receive arabs favour by naming arabian gulf  and justifuy his wrong s

    Asia Times
    December 9, 2004

    All at sea over 'the Gulf'

    By Mahan Abedin

    The recent furor over the National Geographic Society's decision to use the fictitious term "arabian Gulf" alongside the historically and legally correct term "Persian Gulf" has had a much greater political impact and corresponding media coverage that many had anticipated.

    After all, the name "Persian Gulf", although long recognized by the United Nations as the only historically and legally valid term for the waterway separating the Iranian plateaus from the Arabian Peninsula, is not universally respected. The British Broadcasting Corp (BBC) and much of the British press have been calling it "the Gulf" for more than three decades. Moreover, even some organizations and publications in North America have not been immune to the financial inducements of powerful institutions and individuals inhabiting the western shores of the "Persian Gulf."

    The abuse of the name "Persian Gulf" has been ongoing for more than 30 years, but until now it has never caused much media curiosity, let alone a minor political crisis. But this time around things are very different.

    First and foremost, the Iranian government has entered the fray for the first time and banned the National Geographic Society (NGS) from Iran until it corrects its mistake. Moreover, Iranian communities worldwide have become involved in a campaign against NGS; an online petition has so far generated more than 70,000 signatures. Iranian bloggers have been at the forefront of the campaign, with the more creative among them even generating a "google" bomb whereby those searching for the politically constructed name "arabian Gulf" are directed to a site where they are presented with historical facts about the body of water.

    Many intelligent and curious observers may be tempted to ask what the fuss is all about. To understand fully why this issue generates such powerful emotions in Iranians would be impossible without a brief exposition of the history of the "Persian" Gulf.

    Millennia of 'Persian Gulf'

    It was the ancient Greeks who originally named the body of water separating the Iranian plateaus from the arabian Peninsula "Persious Sinus". This reflected both an appreciation of Persian civilization and a grudging respect for Persian naval prowess.

    Early Roman historians - in keeping with the traditions of the ancient Greeks - called the waterway "Aquarius Persico". Thus the ancient world universally recognized this strategic waterway as the Persian Sea, a recognition that has persisted throughout the ages.

    Even after the conquest of Iran by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century AD, there was no attempt to alter the name of the Persian Sea. The Muslim Arabs universally referred to the gulf as "Bahr al-Farsi" (Persian Sea) and duly respected the precedence established by the Greeks and the Romans. This precedence was in turn respected by the various Arab, Iranian and Turkish empires that held sway in the region for the next 1200 years.

    At what particular point in history the Persian Sea became the Persian Gulf is not altogether clear. But what is important and acutely consequential is that the United Nations has on two occasions formally recognized "Persian Gulf" as the exclusive term for the strategic waterway separating Iran from its arab neighbors.

    The first announcement was made pursuant to the document UNAD 311/Gen on March 5, 1971, and the second was pursuant to UNLA 45.8.2 (C) on August 10, 1984. On both occasions, all 22 Arab nations represented at the United Nations signed the documents.

    Some observers have traced the origins of the campaign to change the name of the "Persian Gulf" to the rise of arab nationalism and in particular, Gamal Abdel Nasser. In fact, this campaign predates Nasser by several decades and, like many other noteworthy events in that region, inevitably involved the British.

    The first person to propose changing the name of the Persian Gulf to the "arabian" Gulf was "Sir Charles Belgrave", the British adviser to the rulers of Bahrain in the early 1930s. Belgrave made the proposal to his masters in London, but both the Colonial and Foreign offices rejected it outright.

    The next attempt was made by a more consequential individual. After the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry by the nationalist government of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh in 1951, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co (AIOC) was desperate to sabotage Iranian interests in the region to avenge its losses. The task of reviving the "arabian Gulf" project was entrusted to "Roderick Owen", arguably one of greatest unsung heroes of the British secret state in the 20th century.

    Using the cover of a shadowy functionary of the AIOC, Owen was in fact a senior MI6 officer in the Middle East. The primary product of Owen's campaign was a book called "The Golden Bubble of the arabian Gulf". This book constituted the first literary work of any significance to popularize the term "arabian Gulf".

    Thus the campaign to distort and eventually displace the historical term "Persian Gulf" originates in the retreat and defeat of British colonialism in the Middle East.

    There is no doubt, however, that Nasser was the man - and the militant Arab nationalism that he represented was the ideology - that popularized changing the name of the Persian Gulf to accommodate arab chauvinism.

    Nasser was less interested in changing the name of international waterways than being seen to be confronting the Shah of Iran - who was almost universally disliked in the Arab world at that time.

    Nasser's Egyptian regime, using the financial resources of the small Arab sheikhdoms on the western shores of the Persian Gulf, started the global campaign to change the name of the Persian Gulf, in earnest.

    The leadership of this campaign was gradually appropriated by the new Ba'ath regime in Iraq. The post-1968 Iraqi Ba'athist regime struck a close alliance with the government of Abu Dhabi - the most influential constituent of the embryonic United Arab Emirates (UAE). This relationship proved decisive as the Arab-nationalist propaganda campaign of the Iraqi Ba'athists had recourse to the financial resources of the UAE. Interestingly, the government of Abu Dhabi retained its close alliance with the Ba'athist regime of Saddam Hussein right to the bitter end in April 2003.

    Several fake academic and research institutions were set up as fronts to propagate the politically motivated name "arabian Gulf". These organizations established extensive links with universities, publishing houses and cartographic centers around the world to offer inducements to adopt the "new" name for the strategic waterway. In time many Western academics, politicians and journalists were persuaded - thanks to generous financial incentives - to adopt the new name.

    This campaign had such a marked impact that in the mid-1970s the BBC decided to adopt the neutral term "the Gulf" for the waterway.

    This unprecedented move constituted the arab nationalists' greatest success, as the BBC had unrivaled power and influence at that time. Indeed, the ripple effect had immediate results insofar as much of the British press followed the BBC in adopting "the Gulf" as the primary point of reference. In due course some media on the European continent and a small minority of media and publications in North America adopted the BBC approach in stripping the "Persian Gulf" of its identity.

    Why 'Persian Gulf'

    Those who follow the BBC in calling for the institutionalization of the so-called neutral term "the Gulf" are missing several important points.

    First and foremost, the name "Persian Gulf" reflects millennia of history, and disrespecting this name inevitably diminishes the histories and civilizations that grew around this strategic waterway.

    Second, the name "Persian Gulf" has been legitimized by the highest international legal body, namely the United Nations. This legal premise is diminished at our peril; just imagine the crises that would erupt if nations took it upon themselves to rename the historical and legal names of seas and oceans. Imagine the Pakistanis calling the Indian Ocean the "Pakistani Ocean"; Texans renaming the Gulf of Mexico to reflect the identity of their own state; or the Iranians calling the Gulf of Oman the "Gulf of Iran".

    Clearly, renaming the historical identifications of places is no trivial matter and can have very adverse political consequences.

    Third, the campaign to change the name of the Persian Gulf, although rooted in the frustrations of a collapsing British Empire, has been driven by the politics of arab nationalism. This nationalism is now almost universally condemned as a failure, and any lingering dreams of pan-arabia dissipated with the fall of Baghdad and the ouster of Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003.

    After the Iranian government took its unusually robust stance against NGS, the arabic broadcasting network al-Jazeera put out a cartoon ridiculing the Iranian effort. The cartoon showed an Iranian mullah disregarding regional issues and "Muslim" unity (depicted in quintessentially distasteful and provocative al-Jazeera style by a U.S .soldier carrying away a Muslim woman) and instead opting to punish NGS for its disrespect for the Persian Gulf.

    While this kind of crude, provocative, false and hypocritical politicization is typical of al-Jazeera and the arab media generally, it is important to underline that this issue is not inherently political. It is about the history and heritage of a waterway that has had a Persian identity for millennia.

    In a statement on its website, the National Geographic Society said that while it considers "'Persian Gulf' to be the primary name, it has been the society's cartographic practice to display a secondary name in parentheses when the use of such a name has become commonly recognized".

    --Mahan Abedin is the editor of Terrorism Monitor, which is published by the Jamestown Foundation (http://www.jamestown.org), a non-profit organization specializing in research and analysis on conflict and instability in Eurasia. He has an MSc in Political Theory from the London School of Economics and is currently the director of an insurance consultancy. The views expressed are his own. http://atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FL09Ak03.html

    Other articles by Mahan Abedin:
    Iran at sea over Azarbaijan -- September 28, 2004
    http://www.worldsecuritynetwork.com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=10307

    First-Hand View of the Mojahedin-e-Khalq (MEK)-- July 16, 2004
    http://www.ocnus.net/cgi-bin/exec/view.cgi?archive=50&num=12914

    Iran Democracy Foundation
    http://www.disinfopedia.org/wiki.phtml/Iran_Democracy_Foundation

     

    کتاب ایران---- --------------------------------- site in Arabic عربی خلیج الفارسی = بحر فارس=
    -------------------------------- بحر الفارسی = الخلیج الفارسی
    --------------------------------------------------- بحر الفارسی1 --------
    ------------------ انگلیسی .سینوس پرسی persicus.sinus
    ------------------------------------ 1.سینوس پرسی persicus1.sinus
    ------------- heritage iran
    -------------------------------------- PGO heritage
    -------------------------------------- geocities
    -------------------------------------- Iranalliance
    ------------------------------------- دریای پارسی در جیوسیتی
    --------------------- 3 iranian island =
    ----------------- 3 iranian island.GAPSABZO =
    دریای مازندران 1 ایران `payam-darya
    -------------------------------------- دریای مازندران2 ایران `payam-darya
    -------------------------------------- iranchambدریای خزر
    -------------------------------------- 50 عکس های ناسا از خلیج فارس
    -------------------------------------- - تیر آرش کلیپ زیبای زنده باد خلیج فارس
    -------------------------------------- - تیر آرش کلیپ زیبای زنده باد خلیج فارس خلیج همیشگی فارس2
    -------------------------------------- ماموریت ابوناشریف صدامی با پول ارتجاع برای نابودی نام خلیج فارس
    -------------------------------------- - شیخ ابوناشریف پس از سفر موفقت آمیز لندن به نیویورک رفت پولها را داد و با تودهنی ملت ایران در رفت
    -------------------------------------- کتابها و برگهای فارسی در مورد نام خلیج فارس دریای پارس
    دریای پارس1
    متن کتاب خلیج فارس در درازای تاریخ: پیروز مجتهد زاده
    -------------------------------- persiske bugt.persique golfe 2متن کتاب خلیج فارس نامی کهن تر از تاریخ:محمد عجم
    -------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- 17-persico میر پرسیکو
    -------------------------------------- 1 سایت الخلیج بحر العجم =
    ------------------------------------ 1 عجم =
    بحر عجم bahreajam
    -------------------------------------- هریتج پرسیکو
    -------------------------------------- نامهای باستانی خلیج فارس ایران زیبد-
    -------------------------------------- نامهای باستانی ایرانaliajam
    ------------------------------------- بحر عجمspacestar
    -------------------------------------- نقشه های استخری دریای پارس بحر فارس 326 هجری persiangulfmapsخرائط بحر الفارسی
    -------------------------------------- le golfe persique +گلفو پرسی دریای پارس
    ------------------------------------- بخش اول نقشه های کهن خلیج فارس25 نقشه ajamze
    -------------------------------------- 25 ن 25 نقشه قرون وسطی از خلیج فارس در کتابخانه های هلندPersiangulfmapsخرائط بحر الفارسی
    -------------------------------------- مهرگان خلیج فارس
    -------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- مهرگان خلیج فارس ajam
    --------------------------------------- مهرگان خلیج فارس ajamparsiblog

     


    do not blame arabs

     To mostly blame the Arabs and adopt a hostile attitude towards them would be a mistake. If we pay close attention, we will realize that the true instigators of conflicts of this sort are in fact non-Arabs. Let us not allow these people in the U.S. and in England and some other countries to create a conflict between us and our neighbors. These kind of people are neither our friends nor the friends of the Arabs. They have always thrived on creating conflicts and wars in our area so that they can use the situation to their advantage. It's about time that we Iranians wake up and understand who these people are and what they are about instead of just converting to "christianity" on their command and voting for their corrupt presidents on command! Neither their president nor their religion will bring us anything good. Until the day when we have ceased following their commands, we will always be the loosers