persian gulf.sinus persicus.percy golf. pars sea

Culture of Slaughter, Killing, and Bloodshed

4/5/2005

 

The following are excerpts from an interview with Egyptian liberal intellectual Kamal Gabriel. Al-Jazeera TV aired this interview on April 5, 2005.

Kamal Gabriel: The Palestinian people suffer from two disasters, two catastrophes - one catastrophe, that I consider smaller, and another which is greater. The smaller catastrophe is global Zionism, which plundered their land and expelled them. The greater catastrophe is Arab fascism that embraced them and adopted their cause, only to bring them down and to destroy them – each [Arab country] according to its interests. The fascism of the Ba'ath – we know what the Ba'ath did. It was the fascism of Nasserism that my [Palestinian colleague] Rashad is proud to be a member of that destroyed him. And today, the fascism of the Pan-Arabist nationalism and fundamentalism, which has entered the theater and is exploiting [the Palestinians]. These fascists are in an eternal battle. They have nothing to do except fight. They are bloodletters and murderers. They are a product of Arab culture - the same Arab culture which produced nothing but slaughter, killing, and bloodshed. Whose blood? It doesn't matter. At times, it could be the blood of those we imagine to be our enemies, or it could be our blood. We can easily find pretexts for this. The important thing is that we shed as much blood as possible. This is the legacy of the Arab culture. The culture of "the sword is more reliable than the books."


Pliny CALLED IT PERSIAN GULF

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.)

BOOK VI. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST, OR FORMERLY EXISTED.

Editions and translations: English (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) | Latin (ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff)
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CHAP. 28.--THE PERSIAN AND THE ARABIAN GULFS.

The sea then makes a two-fold indentations1 in the land upon these coasts, under the name of Rubrum2 or "Red," given to it by our countrymen; while the Greeks have called it Erythrum, from king Erythras,3 or, according to some writers, from its red colour, which they think is produced by the reflection of the sun's rays; others again are of opinion that it arises from the sand and the complexion of the soil, others from some peculiarity in the nature of the water. (24.) Be this as it may, this body of water is divided into two gulfs. The one which lies to the east is called the Persian Gulf, and is two thousand five hundred miles in circumference, according to Eratosthenes. Opposite to it lies Arabia, the length of which is fifteen hundred miles. On the other side again, Arabia is bounded by the Arabian Gulf. The sea as it enters [p. 2067] this gulf is called the Azanian4 Sea. The Persian Gulf, at the entrance, is only five5 miles wide; some writers make it four. From the entrance to the very bottom of the gulf, in a straight line, has been ascertained to be nearly eleven hundred and twenty-five miles: in outline it strongly resembles6 the human head. Onesicritus and Nearchus have stated in their works that from the river Indus to the Persian Gulf, and from thence to Babylon, situate in the marshes of the Euphrates, is a distance of seventeen hundred miles.

In the angle of Carmania are the Chelonophagi,7 who cover their cabins with the shells of turtles, and live upon their flesh; these people inhabit the next promontory that is seen after leaving the river Arbis;8 with the exception of the head, they are covered all over with long hair, and are clothed in the skins of fishes.

(25.) Beyond their district, in the direction of India, is said to be the desert island of Caicandrus, fifty miles out at sea; near to which, with a strait flowing between them, is Stoidis, celebrated for its valuable pearls. After passing the promontory9 are the Armozei,10 joining up to the Carmani; some writers, however, place between them the Arbii,11 extending along the shore a distance of four hundred and twenty-one miles. Here is a place called Portus Macedonum,12 and the Altars of Alexander, situate on a promontory, besides the rivers Saganos, Daras, and Salsa. Beyond the last river we come to the promontory of Themisteas, and the island of Aphrodisias, which is peopled. Here Persis begins, at the river Oratis,13 which [p. 2068] separates it from Elymais.14 Opposite to the coast of Persis, are the islands of Psilos, Cassandra, and Aracia, the last sacred to Neptune,15 and containing a mountain of great height. Persis16 itself, looking towards the west, has a line of coast five hundred and fifty miles in length; it is a country opulent even to luxury, but has long since changed its name for that of "Parthia."17 I shall now devote a few words to the Parthian empire.


why we do not accept changing geo names

just for your information

As the  most famous Arab scholar  such as Mr.  Professor Abdul Saeed Moneam , Majdei Omar , Abdul Hadi Tazi, Ghalagei, Abdrahman Rashed   had wrote :

“There is no even a single book or map, document or any written or oral literature in Arabic or other languages in all over the world before 1950s to refer to this body of water as Arabian Gulf? All the maps even those which drawn by Arabs refer to this body of water as khaleej or bahre Farsi (Persian) and its equivalent.” (click for Arabs scholar opinions:: www.farsi-arabi.persianblog.ir
Anger of Iranian people and even Iranian government was not merely because of a parentheses name on national geography, it was an anger after 30 years of toleration
 the Persian gulf historical name as a heritage of yours and ours fathers and ancestors have do not  deserve of that harsh treatment that conducted by Arabs ultra nationalist and even takfeery sect we had tolerated Arabic mass media as they had referred to it as the new name of Arabian in the past 20 years,  but we raised our voice when we noticed  Arabs officials and institutions except(al Ahram weekly) not only refer to this body of water as its new name but also in translation and republication or in reintroduction of old documents , ancient books or maps they started to change its original word of khaleej al Farsi(Persian Gulf) to Arabic gulf and translate word Persian to Arabian ??! I had listed at least 20  ancient books and maps even those of Arabic that recently in new edition , the original name of the Persian gulf (bahre Farsi) had been deleted or translated to Arabian gulf !?!.i.e. (Ibn Battue’s travels and atlas of pre Islam of Arabia). This is contrary to the UN and UNESCO conventions and no body can  accept exteremist Takfeery,ultra nationalist,illogic ,unscientific way of conducting to the  ancient name of  (khaleej- al Farsi) Persian gulf  this approch is even contrary to your  norm  for names like of Mediterranean, Egypt ,Jordan , Tigris , Euphrates and many other names,) We had been silent in favor of unity  but we didn't received any mutual respect regarding historical truth from arabnationalist  toward the heritage of an ancient  nation who has been there since pre history time .Iranian had never tried to changed names like Arab sea  to  Persian sea  , shat al Arab to Arvand or 
 Caspian sea  ..... to Iranian although there are  many references in ancient  book and maps to Persian sea , Arvand and Iranian sea name but on contrary  there was a strong claims and many books and article on false basis on Iranian ancient territory and geo name , many hatred anti Persian material in Arabic book which insulting Iranian heritage  and language in the past recent 20 years we were hopeful  that it have been finished but unfortunately Iraq event once again fueled it on  baseless claim and this was the erupt of Iranian people  over   the national geographic map.  

 

According to the resolutions of the U N Conference on the Standardization of Geo Names, all geographical places must have officially a single name to avoid confusing in this age of digital and information era. According to professor Abdul Hadi Tazi Arabs have raised a local alternate name for Persian Gulf but this had been rejected by the conference and even UN secretariat in 2 occasions or more have announced that internationally recognized name of the Persian Gulf and its equivalent in another  5 UN official language is only recognized name of that body of water.
Professor Tazi also added “Current existence of 6 Arab countries is not a legal reason to change a name with 3000 universal usage background”.
 There are more than 184 resolutions of 8 UNCSGN conferences.

resolution No 9 of 8th conference in Berlin calling for RESPECT to historical name  in geographical NOMENCULATURE as the heritage of ...see page 55  of 151

 so we strongly believe  petro $$ of the Persian gulf  region is entitled to be used for promotion Of brotherhood, peace, sustainable development and  Eradication of illiteration and poverty not to be used for  Geo name change and provoking hatred, racism and Extremism.

The “Arabian Gulf” actually refers to the present-day “Red Sea “in antiquity and the gulf west of Alexandria in Egypt coast. See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary and click this article Herodotus.  or  :    Persian Gulf Organization..  ..or www.persicus.persianblog.ir

    

   
Best Regards

Mohammad Ajam   faculty of political science 

================================================

 respect the historical truth

wrong reference in  Article by ....

The  reference in your website  the  new  term "Arabian Gulf" is historically and legally incorrect. According to all historical, geographical books ,maps and international documents, such as United Nation's directives and the  U NCSGN, the body of water between Iran and Arabian Peninsula is only called "Persian Gulf .

The “Arabian Gulf” actually refers to the present-day “Red Sea “in antiquity and the gulf  of west  Alexandria in Egypt coast. See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps  and click :    Persian Gulf Organization..  ..

   

Please be aware that in legal terms, the United Nations has twice recognized the legality of the term "Persian Gulf" (UNAD 311/March 5, 1971 and UNLA 45.8.2 (c) on August 10, 1984). It is significant that all Arab countries have signed the UN documents. For further information consult the following links:

http://www.un.org/arabic/av/radio/news/2003/n0311070.htm
http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm
http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/westasia.pdf

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/qatar.pdf

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/iraq.pdf

http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/docs/escwa.pdf


It is a remarkable fact that the portrayal of geographical nomenclature by your site is at odds and at variance with the actual legal documentation of the UN and to the resolutions of the  .UNCSGN UNConference on the Standardization of Geo Names,  are you  aware of this ?
all Arab scholars up to the 1960s have also referred to the body of water as its Historical name "Kahleej-al-Fares" (Persian Gulf) See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary Tunisia and Atlas of historical maps of persian gulf  by S.M.Ghasmi UAE. or Atlas of IRAQ's  maps  by Ahmad Susa.(click for Arabs scholar opinions:

 www.farsi-arabi.persianblog.ir

Iranian had never tried to change geo name due to national intrest  like Arab sea , Oman sea   or   Caspian sea  .....to  Persian or Iranian sea  although there are  many references in ancient  book and maps to Persian  and Iranian sea.
The invention of "Arabian Gulf" was initiated by a political advisor of  Emir of Bahrain(Sir Charles Belgrave ( 1926-1956)  his initiative was rejected as an uncorrect reference at the time .  see TIME Magazine's August 27, 1956 entitled "The Uncontrollable Genie). Sir Belgrave's failure did not restrain Mr. Roderic Owen (an employee of British Petroleum in the 1950s) from reviving the project of name change for the Persian Gulf.
The misapplication of terms, such as using the old term for the Red Sea (Arabian Gulf) instead of Persian Gulf, was an ingenious step in creating geopolitical and popular friction between Arabs and Iranians which  can cause  confution and a mess of geo names .

Note that many schoolars and Mass Medi  such as CBC( Mr. Germain head of Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) after carful study of the case have  removed  all references to "Arabian Gulf" and now  correctly refer to the body of water as The Persian Gulf. .
It would be appreciated that the geographical error be rectified as soon as possible. Your attention to this matter is most appreciated.


Best Regards

Mohammad Ajam   faculty of political science 

 


to arabs news papers and magazine

To the arab abuser:

As the  most famous Arab scholar  such as Mr.  Professor Abdul Saeed Moneam , Majdei Omar , Abdul Hadi Tazi, Ghalagei, Abdrahman Rashed   had wrote :

“There is no even a single book or map, document or any written or oral literature in Arabic or other languages in all over the world before 1950s to refer to this body of water as Arabian Gulf? All the maps even those which drawn by Arabs refer to this body of water as khaleej or bahre Farsi (Persian) and its equivalent.” (click for Arabs scholar opinions www.farsi-arabi.persianblog.ir
Anger of Iranian people and even Iranian government was not merely because of a parentheses name on national geography, it was an anger after 30 years of toleration
 the Persian gulf historical name as a heritage of yours and ours fathers and ancestors have do not  deserve of that harsh treatment that conducted by Arabs ultra nationalist and even takfeery sect we had tolerated Arabic mass media as they had referred to it as the new name of Arabian in the past 20 years,  but we raised our voice when we noticed  Arabs officials and institutions except(al Ahram weekly) not only refer to this body of water as its new name but also in translation and republication or in reintroduction of old documents , ancient books or maps they started to change its original word of khaleej al Farsi(Persian Gulf) to Arabic gulf and translate word Persian to Arabian ??! I had listed at least 20  ancient books and maps even those of Arabic that recently in new edition , the original name of the Persian gulf (bahre Farsi) had been deleted or translated to Arabian gulf !?!.i.e. (Ibn Battue’s travels and atlas of pre Islam of Arabia). This is contrary to the UN and UNESCO conventions and no body can  accept exteremist Takfeery,ultra nationalist,illogic ,unscientific way of conducting to the  ancient name of  (khaleej- al Farsi) Persian gulf  this approch is even contrary to your  norm  for names like of Mediterranean, Egypt ,Jordan , Tigris , Euphrates and many other names,) We had been silent in favor of unity  but we didn't received any mutual respect regarding historical truth from arabnationalist  toward the heritage of an ancient  nation who has been there since pre history time .Iranian had never tried to changed names like Arab sea  to  Persian sea  , shat al Arab to Arvand or 
 Caspian sea  ..... to Iranian although there are  many references in ancient  book and maps to Persian sea , Arvand and Iranian sea name but on contrary  there was a strong claims and many books and article on false basis on Iranian ancient territory and geo name , many hatred anti Persian material in Arabic book which insulting Iranian heritage  and language in the past recent 20 years we were hopeful  that it have been finished but unfortunately Iraq event once again fueled it on  baseless claim and this was the erupt of Iranian people  over   the national geographic map.  

 

According to the resolutions of the U N Conference on the Standardization of Geo Names, all geographical places must have officially a single name to avoid confusing in this age of digital and information era. According to professor Abdul Hadi Tazi Arabs have raised a local alternate name for Persian Gulf but this had been rejected by the conference and even UN secretariat in 2 occasions or more have announced that internationally recognized name of the Persian Gulf and its equivalent in another  5 UN official language is only recognized name of that body of water.
Professor Tazi also added “Current existence of 6 Arab countries is not a legal reason to change a name with 3000 universal usage background”.
 There are more than 184 resolutions of 8 UNCSGN conferences.

resolution No 9 of 8th conference in Berlin calling for RESPECT to historical name  in geographical NOMENCULATURE as the heritage of ...see page 55  of 151

 so we strongly believe  petro $$ of the Persian gulf  region is entitled to be used for promotion Of brotherhood, peace, sustainable development and  Eradication of illiteration and poverty not to be used for  Geo name change and provoking hatred, racism and Extremism.

The “Arabian Gulf” actually refers to the present-day “Red Sea “in antiquity and the gulf west of Alexandria in Egypt coast. See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary and click this article Herodotus  or  :    Persian Gulf Organization..  ..

    

   
Best Regards

Mohammad Ajam   faculty of political science 

================================================

please respect the historical truth

wrong reference in  Article by ....

The  reference in your website  the  new  term "Arabian Gulf" is historically and legally incorrect. According to all historical, geographical books ,maps and international documents, such as United Nation's directives and the  U NCSGN, the body of water between Iran and Arabian Peninsula is only called "Persian Gulf .

The “Arabian Gulf” actually refers to the present-day “Red Sea “in antiquity and the gulf  of west  Alexandria in Egypt coast. See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps  and click :    Persian Gulf Organization..  ..

   

Please be aware that in legal terms, the United Nations has twice recognized the legality of the term "Persian Gulf" (UNAD 311/March 5, 1971 and UNLA 45.8.2 (c) on August 10, 1984). It is significant that all Arab countries have signed the UN documents. For further information consult the following links:

http://www.un.org/arabic/av/radio/news/2003/n0311070.htm
http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm
http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/westasia.pdf

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/qatar.pdf

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/iraq.pdf

http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/docs/escwa.pdf


It is a remarkable fact that the portrayal of geographical nomenclature by your site is at odds and at variance with the actual legal documentation of the UN and to the resolutions of the  .UNCSGN UNConference on the Standardization of Geo Names,  are you  aware of this ?
all Arab scholars up to the 1960s have also referred to the body of water as its Historical name "Kahleej-al-Fares" (Persian Gulf) See atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary Tunisia and Atlas of historical maps of persian gulf  by S.M.Ghasmi UAE. or Atlas of IRAQ's  maps  by Ahmad Susa.(click for Arabs scholar opinions:

 www.farsi-arabi.persianblog.ir

Iranian had never tried to change geo name due to national intrest  like Arab sea , Oman sea   or   Caspian sea  .....to  Persian or Iranian sea  although there are  many references in ancient  book and maps to Persian  and Iranian sea.
The invention of "Arabian Gulf" was initiated by a political advisor of  Emir of Bahrain(Sir Charles Belgrave ( 1926-1956)  his initiative was rejected as an uncorrect reference at the time .  see TIME Magazine's August 27, 1956 entitled "The Uncontrollable Genie). Sir Belgrave's failure did not restrain Mr. Roderic Owen (an employee of British Petroleum in the 1950s) from reviving the project of name change for the Persian Gulf.
The misapplication of terms, such as using the old term for the Red Sea (Arabian Gulf) instead of Persian Gulf, was an ingenious step in creating geopolitical and popular friction between Arabs and Iranians which  can cause  confution and a mess of geo names .

Note that many schoolars and Mass Medi  such as CBC( Mr. Germain head of Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) after carful study of the case have  removed  all references to "Arabian Gulf" and now  correctly refer to the body of water as The Persian Gulf. .
It would be appreciated that the geographical error be rectified as soon as possible. Your attention to this matter is most appreciated.


Best Regards

Mohammad Ajam   faculty of political science 


پرشن گلفThe Persian Gulf,Geography

Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from larger map of the Middle East.

The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.[1] The Persian Gulf was the focus of the Iraq-Iran War that lasted from 1980 to 1988, with each side attacking the other's oil tankers. In 1991, the Persian Gulf again was the background for what was called the Persian Gulf War or the "Gulf War" when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back, despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs, and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has become increasingly under pressure from the heavy industrialisation and in particular the repeated major petroleum spillages associated with recent wars fought in the region.

Geography

This inland sea of some 251,000 km² is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz; and its western end is marked by the major river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Its length is 989 kilometres, separating mainly Iran from Saudi Arabia with the shortest divide of about 56 kilometres in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are overall very shallow and have a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from the north): Iran, Oman (exclave of Musandam), United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast, Bahrain on an island, Kuwait and Iraq in the northwest. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf.

Oil and gas

The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil and related industries dominate the region. Al-Safaniya, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian gulf. Large gas finds have also been made with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line (North Field in the Qatari sector; South Pars Field in the Iranian sector). Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquified natural gas (LNG) and petrochemical industry. The oil-rich countries (excluding Iraq) that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and easily blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Arvand River, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers, where the left (East) bank is held by Iran.

Etymology

The experts, who have worked on the name of Persian Gulf, became unanimous considering the name of Persian Gulf as the correct term. For at least during the past 2500 years, i.e. from the rise of the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 B.C.) there has never been seen such a consensus in the Middle East among writers and historians on one name during the past twenty-five centuries. The rise of the Achaemenid dynasty, and center of power which was from the province of Pars (Persis, or modern Fars) in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau. Consequently in the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the Persian Gulf.[2] Considering the historical background of the name Persian Gulf, Sir Arnold Wilson mentions in a book, published in 1928 that:

No water channel has been so significant as Persian Gulf to the geologists, archaeologists, geographers, merchants, politicians, excursionists, and scholars whether in past or in present. This water channel which separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago.[3]

No written deed has remained since the era before the Persian Empire, but in the oral history and culture, the Iranians have called the southern waters: "Jam Sea", "Iran Sea", "Pars Sea". During the years: 550 to 330 B.C. coinciding with sovereignty of the first Persian Empire on the Middle East area, especially the whole part of Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" has been widely written in the compiled texts.[4] In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, and the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the great, installed at junction of waters of Arabian Gulf (Ahmar Sea = Red sea) and Nile river and Rome river (current Mediterranean) which belongs to the 5th century BC where, Darius, the king of Achaemenid Empire has named the Persian Gulf Water Channel: Pars Sea.[5]

Naming dispute

A historical map is altered to erase the word "Persian" from the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum, United Arab Emirates.
A historical map is altered to erase the word "Persian" from the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum, United Arab Emirates.

Since the 1960s with the rise of Arab nationalism (Pan-Arabism), starting with Gamal Abdel Nasser's Arab Republic of Egypt, some Arab countries, including the ones bordering the Persian Gulf, have adopted the term "Arabian Gulf" (in Arabic: الخلیج العربی al-khalīj al-ʿarabī) to refer to the waterway.[6] This is controversial and not commonly used outside of the Arab world, nor is it recognized by the United Nations[7][8][9] and other international organizations. The United Nations on many occasions has requested that only "Persian Gulf" be used as the official and standard geographical designation for the body of water.[10] "Arabian Gulf" is also an ancient name for the Red Sea.[11] Hecataeus (472 to 509 B.C.) can be stated where Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf (Red Sea) have been clearly shown. Also a map has remained from Herodotus, the great Greek historian (425-484 B.C.) which introduces Red Sea as the Arabian Gulf. [12] In the world map of Diseark (285-347 B.C.) too, Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf have been clearly distinct. At the same time, many maps and deeds prepared up to the 8th century by the historians such as Arrian[13] Hecataeus, Herodotus, Hiparek, Claudius Batlamious, Krats Malous,…… and in the Islamic period, Khwārizmī, Abou Yousef Eshagh Kandi, Ibn Khordadbeh, Batani (Harrani), Mas'udi, Balkhi, Estakhri, Ibn Houghal, Aboureyhan Birouni and others, mention that there is a wide sea at south of Iran named “Pars Sea”, “Pars Gulf”, “Fars Sea”, “Fars Gulf”, “Bahre Fars”, “Sinus Persicus” and “Mare Persicum” and so on. In a book, named “Persilus Aryateria”, the Greek traveller of the 1st century A.D. has called the Red Sea as Arabian gulf; the Indian ocean has been named Aryateria Sea; the waters at Oman Coast is called Pars Sea; Barbarus region (between Oman and Yemen coast are called belonging to Pars, and the Gulf located at south side of Iran is named: Persian Gulf. By describing the water body, the life of Persians living at both sides have also been confirmed.[14] Most recently, at the Twenty-third session of United Nation in March-April 2006, the name "Persian Gulf" was confirmed again as the legitimate and the official term to be used by members of United Nation.[15]

British residency

From 1763 until 1971, the United Kingdom maintained varying degrees of political control over some Persian Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (originally called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar. Britain still keeps a high profile in the region even today. In 2006, for example, over 1 million Britons visited Dubai alone.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([1]); accessed February 09, 2007
  2. ^ Touraj Daryaee, The Persian Gulf Trade in Late Antiquity, Journal of World History, Vol. 14, No. 1., March 2003, (LINK); accessed Fenruary 09, 2007
  3. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([2]); accessed February 09, 2007
  4. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([3]); accessed February 09, 2007
  5. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([4]); accessed February 09, 2007
  6. ^ Niusha Boghrati, Omission of 'Persian Gulf' Name Angers Iran, World Press.com, dated December 28, 2006 (LINK)
  7. ^ UN Map (LINK)
  8. ^ UN Map of Iran([5])
  9. ^ UN Map Map of Western Asia, ([6])
  10. ^ ([7])
  11. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006, p.2 ([8])
  12. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([9]); accessed February 09, 2007
  13. ^ Arriann, "Alexander Fleet in the Persian Gulf", in Anabasis Alexandri: Book VIII (INDICA)
  14. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([10]); accessed February 09, 2007
  15. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006, p.2 ([11]).
  16. ^ Peter Beaumont, "Blair was dangerously off target in his condemnation of Iran", The Guardian, December 24, 2006.

External links


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