persian gulf.sinus persicus.percy golf. pars sea

persian gulf and <#hits#> persian sea in ancient books and maps <#hits#>

 Strabo had used name of persian gulf in his maps and books he was  (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Nowadays, Strabo is mostly famous for his Geographia, a 17-book work containing history and descriptions of people and places all over the world as known to him.

Strabo was born in a wealthy family from Amaseia (current-day Amasya, Turkey) in Pontus, which became part of the Roman empire just around the time of his birth. He studied under various geographers and philosophers, first in his own area, later in Rome. He was philosophically a stoicist, politically a proponent of Roman imperialism. Later he made extensive travels to among others Egypt , Ethiopia  and persian sea. It is not known when he wrote his Geographia though remarks in it place the finished version in the reign of Emperor Tiberius; some place its first drafts around 7 AD, others around 18 AD. The death of Juba, king of Maurousia is mentioned, an event which took place in 23 AD.

Strabo's Historia is lost: Strabo quotes it himself, and other classical authors mention that it existed. All that we have of it is a fragment of papyrus now at the University of Milan (renumbered P[apyrus] 46).

Several different dates have been proposed for Strabo's death, most of them placing it shortly after 23.

The Geographia is an extensive work in Greek, spanning 17 volumes, and can be regarded as an encyclopedia of the geographical knowledge of his time. He also gives a history of geography, thus giving us information about various older geographers whose works have not survived. Some thirty manuscripts of Geographia or parts of it have survived, almost all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were probably copied out ca AD 100 - 300. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002, appearing at a rate of about a volume a year.


Claudius Ptolemaeus had used persian gulf in his works and maps (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαίος; c. 85 – c. 165), known in English as Ptolemy, was a Greek geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who probably lived and worked in Alexandria in Egypt.

Ptolemy was the author of two important scientific treatises. One is the astronomical treatise that is now known as the Almagest (in Greek Η μεγάλη Σύνταξις, "The Great Treatise"). It was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name) and only made available in Latin translation (by Gerard of Cremona) in the 12th Century.

In this work, one of the most influential books of Antiquity, Ptolemy compiled the astronomical knowledge of the ancient Greek and Babylonian world; he relied mainly on the work of Hipparchus of three centuries earlier. Ptolemy formulated a geocentric model (see: Ptolemaic system) of the solar system which remained the generally accepted model in the Western and Arab worlds until it was superseded by the heliocentric solar system of Copernicus. Likewise his computational methods (supplemented in the 12th Century with the Arabic computational 'Tables of Toledo') were of sufficient accuracy to satisfy the needs of astronomers, astrologers and navigators, until the time of the great explorations. They were also adopted in the Arab world and in India. The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is probably an updated version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of 48 constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky.

Ptolemy's other main work is his Geography. This too is a compilation, of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman empire at his time. He relied mainly on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian empire, but most of his sources beyond the perimeter of the Empire were unreliable.

The first part of the Geography is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. Like with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. He assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred to express it in the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc (the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as you go from the equator to the polar circle). He put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the Canary Islands.

Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. In the second part of the Geography he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Canary islands in the Atlantic Ocean to China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from the Arctic to the East-indies and deep into Africa; Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe.

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography however, date only from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes.

Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), but Ptolemy invented improved projections. It is known that a world map based on the Geography was on display in Autun (France) in late Roman times. In the 15th century Ptolemy's Geographia began to be printed with engraved maps; an edition printed at Ulm in 1482 was the first one printed north of the Alps. The maps look distorted as compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the Earth too small: while Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a degree on the globe, in the Geographia Ptolemy uses 500 stadia. It is not certain if these geographers used the same stadion, but if we assume that they both stuck to the traditional Attic stadion of about 185 meters, then the older estimate is 1/6 too large, and Ptolemy's value is 1/6 too small. Because Ptolemy derived most of his topographic coordinates by converting measured distances to angles, his maps get distorted. So his values for the latitude were in error by up to 2 degrees. For longitude this was even worse, because there was no reliable method to determine geographic longitude; Ptolemy was well aware of this. It remained a problem in geography until the invention of chronometers at the end of the 18th century AD. It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony of the persistent popularity of this influential work.

In his Optics, a work which survives only in a poor Arabic translation, he writes about properties of light, including reflection, refraction and colour. His other works include Planetary Hypothesis, Planisphaerium and Analemma.


Ptolemy's Geography was what we would now call an atlas, the core of which were of course the maps, referred to in the text and table of contents below as "Fifth Map of Europe", "Third Map of Asia", etc. The manual copying of maps is fiendish work, however, and considerably less reliable than that of text — Ptolemy was well aware of this (Book I, Chapter 18) — and his maps have consequently disappeared: nothing remains but the index. Recognizing that the maps would be a sticking point, Ptolemy also suggested that people replot his data, and a good section of Book I of the Geography offers advice on how to draw the maps.

Various people at various times have redrawn the maps from the coördinates given in the work: the map appended to Prof. Stevenson's edition, for example, is a medieval version or copy of just such a replot, but both Planudes and Karl Müller have done it as well. Thus, in undertaking this Web edition at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, I found myself very moved to be, and in good company at that, following Claudius Ptolemy's instructions using instruments he would never have dreamt of: every once in a while, this would hit me for a few seconds and make the unspeakably tedious cartographic reproduction much easier.

Technical details about my maps will follow once I assemble my thoughts a bit better, but I can make two useful remarks right away:


- periplus of erythera


this traveller of first century described his voyage to persian sea and persian gulf ......

32. Immediately beyond Syagrus the bay of Omana cuts deep into the coast-line, the width of it being six hundred stadia; and beyond this there are mountains, high and rocky and steep, inhabited by cave-dwellers for five hundred stadia more; and beyond this is a port established for receiving the Sachalitic frankincense; the harbor is called Moscha, and ships from Cana call there regularly; and ships returning from Damirica and Barygaza, if the season is late, winter there, and trade with the King's officers, exchanging their cloth and wheat and sesame oil for frankincense, which lies in heaps all over the Sachalitic country, open and unguarded, as if the place were under the protection of the gods; for neither openly nor by stealth can it be loaded on board ship without the King's permission; if a single grain were loaded without this, the ship could not clear from the harbor.

33. Beyond the harbor of Moscha for about fifteen hundred stadia as far as Asich, a mountain range runs along the shore; at the end of which, in a row, lie seven islands, called Zenobian. Beyond these there is a barbarous region which is no longer of the same Kingdom, but now belongs to Persia. Sailing along this coast well out at sea for two thousand stadia from the Zenobian Islands, there meets you an island called Sarapis, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the mainland. It is about two hundred stadia wide and six hundred long, inhabited by three settlements of Fish-Eaters, a villainous lot, who use the Arabian language and wear girdles of palm-leaves. The island produces considerable tortoise-shell of fine quality, and small sailboats and cargo-ships are sent there regularly from Cana.

34. Sailing along the coast, which trends northward toward the entrance of the Persian Sea, there are many islands known as the Calxi, after about two thousand stadia, extending along the shore. The inhabitants are a treacherous lot, very little civilized.

35. At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon, and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. At the upper end of the persian Gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charax Spasini and the River Euphrates.

36. Sailing through the mouth of the Gulf, after a six-days' course there is another market-town of Persia called Omana. To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs of blackwood and ebony. To Ommana frankincense is also brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia boats sewed together after the fashion of the place; these are known as madarata. From each of these market-towns, there are exported to Barygaza and also to Arabia, many pearls, but inferior to those of lndia; purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a great quantity of dates, gold and slaves.

37. Beyond the Ommanitic region there is a country also of the Parsids, of another Kingdom, and the bay of Gedrosia, from the middle of which a cape juts out into the bay. Here there is a river affording an entrance for ships, with a little market-town at the mouth, called Oraea; and back from the place an inland city, distant a seven days' journey from the sea, in which also is the King's court; it is called ----- (probably Rhambacia). This country yields much, wheat, wine, rice and dates; but along the coast there is nothing but bdellium

yo can see ful text here>

recently in translation to arabic they had translated original word of persian gulf an persian see to arabian gulf and arabian see click here to see!!!?

Red sea was called  the "Arabian Gulf" in most European sources up to the 20th century. This was derived from older Greek sources. Herodotus, Strabo an and Ptolemy all called the waterway "Arabicus Sinus", while reserving the term "Sea of Erythrias" (Red Sea) for the waters around the southern Arabian Peninsula, now known as Indian Ocean.

The name of the sea does not indicate a real red colour, as the seawater is actually blue when viewed afar, and transparent when held in hand. It may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum near the water surface. Some suggest that it refers to the mineral-rich red mountains nearby, which are indeed called "הרי אדום" ("Mounts of the Edomites" or "the Rubi mountains")

Percy Sykes  in his book "persia " have  the best explnation abut persian gulf name 

From the PublisherPersia in the Great Game
by Antony Wynn
Usually ships in 1 to 3 weeks

Percy Sykes was sent to Persia by British Army Intelligence in the 1890s, first as an explorer and spy, then to open consulates along Persia’s eastern borders. His job was to deter Russian expansion towards India. Unpaid, he rode through thousands of miles of the harshest desert, marsh, and mountain. While a consul at Meshed during a very turbulent time, he bugged the Russian consulate and, armed only with diplomacy, single–handedly faced down a Russian attempt to annex northeast Persia. During World War I, Wassmuss, “the German Lawrence,” incited the southern tribes of Persia against the British. Sykes, who knew everyone that mattered in Persia, was sent out to raise a regiment of villagers to keep Persian oil safe for the Royal Navy. Persia in the Great Game is an engagingly written, superbly researched biography of an astonishing character who hunted gazelle with princes, read Persian poetry, sat at the feet of dervish masters, and got to the heart of a country.

Product Description:
The extraordinary story of Sir Percy Sykes and his unique role in preserving British interests in Persia between the 1890s and World War I—offering a valuable insight into Iran today and its edgy relations with the outside world.

Sharq, Daily Newspaper, No. 356, Dec. 2nd, 2004, Page 5
By : Parviz Varjavand
Word Count : 1148

Celebrated Iranologist Parviz Varjavand says the American National Geographic Institute has baselessly used the fake name of Arabian Gulf for the Persian Gulf. He believes that Arab governments have financed such unprecedented move. The American institute has also claimed that Iran has occupied three islands of Abu Moussa, the Lesser and the Greater Tunbs in the Persian Gulf.

The US-based National Geographic Institute has in its latest atlas parenthesized the fake name of “Arabian Gulf” in front of the “Persian Gulf” of Iran. In the meantime, the United Arab Emirates has groundlessly repeated its allegations of ownership of three Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf. Some Iranian circles have strongly reacted to these events.

We should first see what materials the atlas contains. The Persian Gulf has been referred to as Arabian Gulf, the Kish Island is introduced as “Qis” while Lavan is referred to as “Sheikh Shain”. Above all, the atlas highlights the Iranian islands of Abu Mussa, the Lesser and the Greater Tunbs as “occupied by Iran” and “claimed by the United Arab Emirates”. Such action has set a precedent for a credited atlas. The three islands belong to Iran and only a newly established sheikhdom lays claim to them. The United Nations and other international bodies have endorsed Iranian sovereignty on these Persian Gulf islands. Many are the countries still disputing islands since the end of the World War I. But as long as the flag of a country flies on an island no geographical institute dares to question its sovereignty de facto.

Whatever the National Geographic Institute has done is designed for threatening Iranian sovereignty on its own islands and pressuring Iran. The Americans have in fact designed a plot to have Iran file a lawsuit against the National Geographic Institute at an international court of justice so that they can give an international image to UAE’s baseless claims and push Iran into difficulties. Iranians should watch out for such schemes and should not take any unwise action. Under such
sensitive circumstances, senior Iranian researchers should tender a letter of protest to the American institute and demand internationally recognized geographic experts and historians to take a position against the distorted names. Iranian university professors based in the United States should also speak out so that the National Geographic can reconsider its atlas.

Historical Background

Documents deriving from Greek and Roman resources to post-Islamic period indicate well that the salty waters in the south of Persia were known as the Persian Gulf. This name was registered since the reign of the Achaemenians. Greek philosophers like Ptolemy and Strabone have referred to the Persian Gulf as “Sinus Persicus”. The latest name is also used in a map of the world designed by “Henricus Martlos” in 1492. Even Arab travelers and geographers have introduced this gulf as the “Persian Gulf”, “Non-Arab Gulf” and “Persian Sea”. Event the Sea of Oman is included in the Persian Gulf. Some of these geographers are Ibn Khordad, Ibn Faqih, Estakhri, Masoodi, Moqaddasi, Ibn Qomal, Yaqout Homavi and Ibn Batouteh. Georgi Zeidan has referred to the Red Sea as the “Arabian Gulf”.

Britons Used Arabian Gulf

British representative to the Persian Gulf Sir Charles Belgrio was the first one to use the fake name of “Arabian Gulf” through 1926-1957. The seasoned diplomat used this fake name in a bid to damage Iranian reputation in the region. That is the case while his predecessor has referred to the waters as the Persian Gulf in his “Welcome to Bahrain”.

Gamal Abdul Nasser took power in Egypt and he was swift to cut ties with Israel. He also nationalized the Suez Canal and that was when the British man took tough position against Iran and demanded that Arab nations refer to the Persian Gulf as the Arabian Gulf. That was when the Arab League ruled that all textbooks should use the fake name of Arabian Gulf. Arabs paid a lot to international newspapers and institutes to use the same fake name. Even customs checkpoints did not let any book or atlas containing the name of Persian Gulf enters Arab countries country.

Iran’s Sahab Geographical Institute organized an exhibition to attract the global attention to its rightful call. The fake name of Arabian Gulf was ordered by Gamal Abdul Nasser and oil-rich Arab countries were paying a lot to fabricate a history for themselves. They did not cease their efforts to satisfy the Great Britain.

The Islamic Revolution won a victory in Iran in 1979 while the Western nations were benefiting from oil bonanza originating from oil-rich Middle Eastern nations. Arab countries locked their horns to distort cultural facts in an attempt to sully the squeaky clean image of Iran. Enemies were also determined to cause secessionism in the country and the Iranian nation should be careful not to oil the wheels of separatists who introduce our country as “multi-national”.

Fabrication of geographical names was a creeping policy adopted by the world powers. It picked up speed notably in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Iranian nations should follow up these affairs very carefully and seek to know the historical facts. Colonial powers have been undertaking long-term plans to pay off now. In the course of the WWI, Pan-Turkists changed the name of “Ancient Albania” to the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russians preserved this title after they defeated the Ottomans. They had hatched plots to detach Azerbaijan from Iranian territory. Iranian journalist Malekoshara Bahar took position against this decision.

Several decades later, the former USSR detached Azerbaijan from Iran and annexed it into its land. Many could not understand that using the fake name of “Republic of Azerbaijan” was used to detach this country from Iran. Now the National Geographic Institute is using the fake name of Arabian Gulf and claims that Iran has occupied its islands. The negative consequences of such phenomenon will strike Iran in the near future. We should not forget our national interests. We should not forget the fact that the American institute wields much clout with the international bodies and 250 million individuals are at its service.

I propose that an ad hoc committee be formed from university professors in a bid to minimize the effects of this unwise action. The Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization should also serve as the secretariat of the committee. Damaging Iran’s valuable cultural heritage provokes irreparable consequences. Ancient cities and provinces should not be renamed.

Our countrymen have launched a cyberfight against this action but they should note that they have to exercise influence on American institutes and at least university professors. It is difficult to make the American institute revise its atlas and we should at least win over American intellectuals